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Authoritative Parenting and Drug-Prevention Practices: Implications for Anti-Drug Ads for Parents
Unformatted Document Text:  Drug Prevention Practices 5 Parent style and substance use. The parenting practices employed by authoritative parents do in fact appear to reduce drug use. Baumrind’s (1991) research revealed that adolescents from authoritative households reported the lowest incidence of drug use. In comparison, children from authoritarian homes engaged in some drug use, children from permissive homes used illicit drugs freely, and children from neglectful or unengaged homes were the heaviest users of drugs. Authoritative upbringing deterred problem behavior, including substance use, across gender and developmental stages. The question “why?” is answered fairly easily. The authoritative parenting style defines a series of parenting practices that directly and indirectly buffer adolescent substance use. First, parental monitoring of adolescent behavior is pivotal in buffering adolescent problem behaviors (Bogenschneider, Wu, Raffaelli, & Tsay, 1998; Dishion & Andrews, 1995). In fact, authoritative parents are documented by Baumrind (1991) as more likely than other types of parents to “monitor and impart clear standards” (p. 62). Second, parental warmth expressed toward the child (i.e., responsiveness) indirectly thwarts adolescent substance use through peer orientations (Maccoby & Martin 1983). Bogenschneider et al. (1998) demonstrated that “parents influence peer orientations primarily by being responsive to their adolescents in ways such as expressing love or praise, being available when needed, and engaging in give-and-take discussions” (p. 1683). As before, the practices of authoritative parents are consistent with these responsiveness behaviors (Baumrind, 1991; Dornbusch et al., 1987). Finally, adolescents from families with higher levels of conflict are more prone to experiment and regularly use illicit drugs (Ary et al., 1999). Yet, authoritative parents value “open communication between parents and children” and encourage verbal give-

Authors: Stephenson, Michael., Atkinson, Joshua., Tschida, David. and Quick, Brian.
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Drug Prevention Practices 5
Parent style and substance use. The parenting practices employed by authoritative
parents do in fact appear to reduce drug use. Baumrind’s (1991) research revealed that
adolescents from authoritative households reported the lowest incidence of drug use. In
comparison, children from authoritarian homes engaged in some drug use, children from
permissive homes used illicit drugs freely, and children from neglectful or unengaged homes
were the heaviest users of drugs. Authoritative upbringing deterred problem behavior, including
substance use, across gender and developmental stages. The question “why?” is answered fairly
easily.
The authoritative parenting style defines a series of parenting practices that directly and
indirectly buffer adolescent substance use. First, parental monitoring of adolescent behavior is
pivotal in buffering adolescent problem behaviors (Bogenschneider, Wu, Raffaelli, & Tsay,
1998; Dishion & Andrews, 1995). In fact, authoritative parents are documented by Baumrind
(1991) as more likely than other types of parents to “monitor and impart clear standards” (p. 62).
Second, parental warmth expressed toward the child (i.e., responsiveness) indirectly thwarts
adolescent substance use through peer orientations (Maccoby & Martin 1983). Bogenschneider
et al. (1998) demonstrated that “parents influence peer orientations primarily by being
responsive to their adolescents in ways such as expressing love or praise, being available when
needed, and engaging in give-and-take discussions” (p. 1683). As before, the practices of
authoritative parents are consistent with these responsiveness behaviors (Baumrind, 1991;
Dornbusch et al., 1987). Finally, adolescents from families with higher levels of conflict are
more prone to experiment and regularly use illicit drugs (Ary et al., 1999). Yet, authoritative
parents value “open communication between parents and children” and encourage verbal give-


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