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Authoritative Parenting and Drug-Prevention Practices: Implications for Anti-Drug Ads for Parents
Unformatted Document Text:  Drug Prevention Practices 7 others’ feelings. For parenting adolescents, the subjective norm represents the “individual’s perception of the social support available from others to perform or not to perform the behavior” (Warden & Koballa, 1995, p. 62). Thus, subjective norm is based on the expectations of salient referents, and one’s motivation to comply with the referents. Communication researchers have employed the TRA in various contexts. Greene, Hale, and Rubin (1997) examined adolescents’ and young adults’ attitudes and behaviors within the context of condom use and AIDS. Among their findings, Greene et al. (1997) determined that attitude was a better predictor of behavioral intention to use condoms than subjective norms for sexually active adolescents and young adults, but that subjective norms was the stronger of behavioral intentions for sexually inactive participants. In a cross-cultural test of the TRA, Park and Levine (1999) determined that attitudes and subjective norms predicted behavioral intentions to study for final exams. Additionally, in examining independent and interdependent self-construals, Park and Levine (1999) found the effects of self-construals differed by culture (United States, Hawai’i, and Korea) in their influence on beliefs and attitudes. Most recently, Nabi and Sullivan (2001) incorporated cultivation theory and the TRA to determine whether repeated exposure to TV images by heavy TV viewers cultivated beliefs and attitudes about violence and influenced their intentions to engage in protective action. They found that beliefs about the prevalence of crime and violence were positively related to a mean- world attitude. Subsequently, mean-world attitude predicted intentions to take protective actions, and protective intentions were positively related to engagement in protective behaviors. Generally, attitude is a stronger predictor of intentions than subjective norms (Ajzen,

Authors: Stephenson, Michael., Atkinson, Joshua., Tschida, David. and Quick, Brian.
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Drug Prevention Practices 7

others’ feelings. For parenting adolescents, the subjective norm represents the “individual’s
perception of the social support available from others to perform or not to perform the behavior”
(Warden & Koballa, 1995, p. 62). Thus, subjective norm is based on the expectations of salient
referents, and one’s motivation to comply with the referents.
Communication researchers have employed the TRA in various contexts. Greene, Hale,
and Rubin (1997) examined adolescents’ and young adults’ attitudes and behaviors within the
context of condom use and AIDS. Among their findings, Greene et al. (1997) determined that
attitude was a better predictor of behavioral intention to use condoms than subjective norms for
sexually active adolescents and young adults, but that subjective norms was the stronger of
behavioral intentions for sexually inactive participants.
In a cross-cultural test of the TRA, Park and Levine (1999) determined that attitudes and
subjective norms predicted behavioral intentions to study for final exams. Additionally, in
examining independent and interdependent self-construals, Park and Levine (1999) found the
effects of self-construals differed by culture (United States, Hawai’i, and Korea) in their
influence on beliefs and attitudes.
Most recently, Nabi and Sullivan (2001) incorporated cultivation theory and the TRA to
determine whether repeated exposure to TV images by heavy TV viewers cultivated beliefs and
attitudes about violence and influenced their intentions to engage in protective action. They
found that beliefs about the prevalence of crime and violence were positively related to a mean-
world attitude. Subsequently, mean-world attitude predicted intentions to take protective actions,
and protective intentions were positively related to engagement in protective behaviors.
Generally, attitude is a stronger predictor of intentions than subjective norms (Ajzen,


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