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Exploring the Link Between the Concepts of Organization-Public Relationships and Organizational Reputations
Unformatted Document Text:  Tracking Number: ICA-15-10266 33 Footnotes 1 According to J. Grunig and Huang (2000, pp. 30-31), the IABC research team identified the four approaches from the literature on organizational effectiveness: (1) The goal attainment approach states that organizations are effective when they meet their goals; (2) the systems approach states that organizations are effective when they survive in their environment and successfully bring in resources necessary for their survival; (3) the strategic constituencies approach puts meaning into the term “environment” by specifying the parts of the environment that are crucial for organizational survival and success; and (4) the competing values approach states that an organization must incorporate the values of strategic constituencies into its goals so the organization attains the goals of most value to its strategic constituencies. 2 J. Grunig and Hunt’s (1984) two-way symmetrical model describes a model of public relations in which research and communication programs are used to bring out “symbiotic” changes from publics and an organization, whereas two-way asymmetrical model is a model of public relations to “persuade” or “frame” publics to behave as an organization favors, or sometimes vice versa. Besides the symmetrical communication system with external publics, the Excellence study found that effective public relations departments also have a symmetrical system of internal communication (J. Grunig et al., 1992). 3 Broom et al. (2000, p. 16) defined the concepts of antecedents: “Antecedents to relationships include the perceptions, motives, needs, behaviors, and so forth, posited as contingencies or as causes in the formation of relationships.” 4 The term “consequences of relationships” are defined earlier by Cutlip et al. (1994) as “the outputs that have the effects of changing the environment and of achieving, maintaining, or changing goal states both inside and outside the organization” (p. 213). 5 See maintenance strategies (e.g., access, disclosure or openness, assurances of legitimacy, networking, sharing tasks, integrative strategies of conflict resolution) in J. Grunig and Huang (2000, pp. 36-41) or L. Grunig, J. Grunig, and Dozier (2002, pp. 551-552). 6 Environmental scanning refers to a public relations technique that aims at identifying potential issues and key publics from the environment, and helping the management build quality relationships with those key publics to resolve identified issues. See the concept of environmental scanning more in Stoffels’ (1994) book, titled “Strategic Issues Management: A Comprehensive Guide to Environmental Scanning.” 7 Hon and J. Grunig (1999) offered the distinction between outputs and outcomes: “Outputs are usually the immediate results of a particular PR program or activity … They measure how well an organization presents itself to others, the amount of attention or exposure that the organization receives. Outcomes measure whether target audience groups actually received the messages directed at them … paid attention to them … understood the messages … and retained those messages in any shape or form; they also measure whether the communications materials and messages that were disseminated have resulted in any opinion, attitude and/or behavior changes on the part of those targeted publics to whom the messages were directed” (p. 2) 8 Fombrun and Rindova (1996) defined reputation as “a collective representations of a firm’s past actions and results that describes the firm’s ability to deliver valued outcomes to multiple stakeholders. It gauges a firm’s relative standing both internally with employees and externally with its stakeholders, in both its competitive and institutional environment” (cited in Fombrun & Van Riel, 1997, p. 10).

Authors: Yang, SungUn. and Mallabo, Jose.
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Tracking Number: ICA-15-10266
33
Footnotes
1
According to J. Grunig and Huang (2000, pp. 30-31), the IABC research team
identified the four approaches from the literature on organizational effectiveness: (1) The
goal attainment approach states that organizations are effective when they meet their goals;
(2) the systems approach states that organizations are effective when they survive in their
environment and successfully bring in resources necessary for their survival; (3) the strategic
constituencies
approach puts meaning into the term “environment” by specifying the parts of
the environment that are crucial for organizational survival and success; and (4) the
competing values approach states that an organization must incorporate the values of strategic
constituencies into its goals so the organization attains the goals of most value to its strategic
constituencies.
2
J. Grunig and Hunt’s (1984) two-way symmetrical model describes a model of
public relations in which research and communication programs are used to bring out
“symbiotic” changes from publics and an organization, whereas two-way asymmetrical
model is a model of public relations to “persuade” or “frame” publics to behave as an
organization favors, or sometimes vice versa. Besides the symmetrical communication
system with external publics, the Excellence study found that effective public relations
departments also have a symmetrical system of internal communication (J. Grunig et al.,
1992).
3
Broom et al. (2000, p. 16) defined the concepts of antecedents: “Antecedents to
relationships include the perceptions, motives, needs, behaviors, and so forth, posited as
contingencies or as causes in the formation of relationships.”
4
The term “consequences of relationships” are defined earlier by Cutlip et al. (1994)
as “the outputs that have the effects of changing the environment and of achieving,
maintaining, or changing goal states both inside and outside the organization” (p. 213).
5
See maintenance strategies (e.g., access, disclosure or openness, assurances of
legitimacy, networking, sharing tasks, integrative strategies of conflict resolution) in J.
Grunig and Huang (2000, pp. 36-41) or L. Grunig, J. Grunig, and Dozier (2002, pp. 551-
552).
6
Environmental scanning refers to a public relations technique that aims at
identifying potential issues and key publics from the environment, and helping the
management build quality relationships with those key publics to resolve identified issues.
See the concept of environmental scanning more in Stoffels’ (1994) book, titled “Strategic
Issues Management: A Comprehensive Guide to Environmental Scanning.”
7
Hon and J. Grunig (1999) offered the distinction between outputs and outcomes:
Outputs are usually the immediate results of a particular PR program or activity … They
measure how well an organization presents itself to others, the amount of attention or
exposure that the organization receives. Outcomes measure whether target audience groups
actually received the messages directed at them … paid attention to them … understood the
messages … and retained those messages in any shape or form; they also measure whether
the communications materials and messages that were disseminated have resulted in any
opinion, attitude and/or behavior changes on the part of those targeted publics to whom the
messages were directed” (p. 2)
8
Fombrun and Rindova (1996) defined reputation as “a collective representations of
a firm’s past actions and results that describes the firm’s ability to deliver valued outcomes to
multiple stakeholders. It gauges a firm’s relative standing both internally with employees and
externally with its stakeholders, in both its competitive and institutional environment” (cited
in Fombrun & Van Riel, 1997, p. 10).


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