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Developmental Differences in Younger and Older Adolescents Understanding of Heroism
Unformatted Document Text:  11 Questionnaire The questionnaire was designed to measure: (1) comprehension of the program content, (2) understanding of the hero and Shadow archetype, (3) perception of the major program themes and (4) perception of the major characters in the program. Following procedures developed by Collins (1970), 37 adults rated questions as either central or incidental to the content of the program. Central items were defined as those that were essential to understanding the plot. Incidental items were those that were irrelevant to the plot. Items were retained that had a 70% minimum centrality rating. Comprehension of the central program content. Twelve free recall items measured each student’s comprehension of the major plots and themes of the program. These textual responses were first scored by a single coder on a scale of 1 to 3, where: 1 = “Does not comprehend,” 2 = “Partially comprehends,” and 3 = “Totally Comprehends". A sample item is “Why did Bruce Wayne become Batman?” Full comprehension credit was given for responses such as “…to make sure what happened to him never happened again.” Partial comprehension credit was given for the response “for revenge.” No credit was given for the response “b/c he was already Batman.” To compute interobserver reliability, a second coder scored a random selection of 47 questionnaires, slightly more than 20% of the total responses. Interobserver reliability, calculated as 2 x the number of agreements divided by the total number of scores for coder 1 and coder 2, was 92% for comprehension scores. Comprehension of the shadow archetype. Two questions measured whether the respondent saw the shadow of Batman and Robin, and if so, how the character overcame his shadow. The kinds of explanations that participants gave for how Batman overcomes

Authors: Zehnder, Sean. and Calvert, Sandra.
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11
Questionnaire
The questionnaire was designed to measure: (1) comprehension of the program
content, (2) understanding of the hero and Shadow archetype, (3) perception of the major
program themes and (4) perception of the major characters in the program. Following
procedures developed by Collins (1970), 37 adults rated questions as either central or
incidental to the content of the program. Central items were defined as those that were
essential to understanding the plot. Incidental items were those that were irrelevant to the
plot. Items were retained that had a 70% minimum centrality rating.
Comprehension of the central program content. Twelve free recall items
measured each student’s comprehension of the major plots and themes of the program.
These textual responses were first scored by a single coder on a scale of 1 to 3, where: 1
= “Does not comprehend,” 2 = “Partially comprehends,” and 3 = “Totally Comprehends".
A sample item is “Why did Bruce Wayne become Batman?” Full comprehension credit
was given for responses such as “…to make sure what happened to him never happened
again.” Partial comprehension credit was given for the response “for revenge.” No credit
was given for the response “b/c he was already Batman.”
To compute interobserver reliability, a second coder scored a random selection of
47 questionnaires, slightly more than 20% of the total responses. Interobserver
reliability, calculated as 2 x the number of agreements divided by the total number of
scores for coder 1 and coder 2, was 92% for comprehension scores.
Comprehension of the shadow archetype. Two questions measured whether the
respondent saw the shadow of Batman and Robin, and if so, how the character overcame
his shadow. The kinds of explanations that participants gave for how Batman overcomes


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