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A Meta-Analytical Review of the Relationship between Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning
Unformatted Document Text:  Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 11 (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990). The remainder of this article describes the methodology and findings of the meta-analysis. Method Literature Search The initial search for manuscripts was conducted through electronic databases and search systems including ERIC, Dissertation Abstracts International, Comm Search, ComIndex, Social Science Index, Academic Search Premier, and the Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection in EBSCO. In addition, relevant citations in the obtained reports were searched, as were the reference sections of instructional communication books and reports. Finally, to locate a representative sampling of relevant unpublished studies, hand searches were conducted of recent convention programs of the National Communication Association and the International Communication Association. Manuscripts were included in the meta-analysis if they met the following criteria: (a) Teaching-learning context where instruction was delivered to a learner or learners; (b) Quantitative measurement of some type of immediacy and some type of learning; (c) Studies reported or published from 1979 through 2001. Some articles, dissertations, or papers reported results from more than one study, or findings from multiple cultural groupings. Following established meta-analytical practice (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001), the unit of analysis for this meta-analytical review was the individual study or unique cultural group, rather than the published article or dissertation. After screening more than 250 articles, dissertations, theses, and convention papers, a total of 93 immediacy and learning studies were identified. One study was excluded because of unconventional methodological factors related to a semi-literate participant pool (McGreal,

Authors: Witt, Paul., Wheeless, Lawrence. and Allen, Mike.
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Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 11
(Hunter & Schmidt, 1990). The remainder of this article describes the methodology and findings
of the meta-analysis.
Method
Literature Search
The initial search for manuscripts was conducted through electronic databases and search
systems including ERIC, Dissertation Abstracts International, Comm Search, ComIndex, Social
Science Index, Academic Search Premier, and the Psychology and Behavioral Science
Collection in EBSCO. In addition, relevant citations in the obtained reports were searched, as
were the reference sections of instructional communication books and reports. Finally, to locate a
representative sampling of relevant unpublished studies, hand searches were conducted of recent
convention programs of the National Communication Association and the International
Communication Association.
Manuscripts were included in the meta-analysis if they met the following criteria: (a)
Teaching-learning context where instruction was delivered to a learner or learners; (b)
Quantitative measurement of some type of immediacy and some type of learning; (c) Studies
reported or published from 1979 through 2001.
Some articles, dissertations, or papers reported results from more than one study, or
findings from multiple cultural groupings. Following established meta-analytical practice
(Lipsey & Wilson, 2001), the unit of analysis for this meta-analytical review was the individual
study or unique cultural group, rather than the published article or dissertation.
After screening more than 250 articles, dissertations, theses, and convention papers, a
total of 93 immediacy and learning studies were identified. One study was excluded because of
unconventional methodological factors related to a semi-literate participant pool (McGreal,


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