All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

A Meta-Analytical Review of the Relationship between Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning
Unformatted Document Text:  Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 12 1989), and eleven studies did not report results in a manner that enabled meta-analytic comparison (Allen, O’Mara, & Long, 1987; Andersen & Withrow, 1981; Daniel, 2000; Frymier, 1993; Furio, 1987; Orpen, 1994; Sidelinger & McCroskey, 1997; Thomas, 1994; Valencic, 2001; Walker & Hackman, 1991; Wanzer & Frymier, 1999). Thus, 81 studies were included in the meta-analysis (see Table 1). Coding of Studies The correlation coefficient r was selected as the appropriate effect size statistic, and qualified researchers collaborated in the coding of the manuscripts for individual effect sizes. Following the principles of variance-centered meta-analysis, average correlations were computed in cases of multiple measurement of the same variable (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). When necessary, appropriate calculations were made to statistically transform reported effects into correlation coefficients (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990). In cases where findings were deemed statistically non-significant, actual correlations were computed whenever possible, but a zero effect size was recorded if no details were present. Before analysis, the average correlation coefficients of each study were adjusted to correct for statistical or design artifacts. In four studies (Comstock et al., 1995; Hess & Smythe, 2001; Menzel & Carrell, 1999; Messman & Jones-Corley, 2001), continuous immediacy data had been grouped by researchers for the purpose of analysis in 2-group or 3-group research designs. Because the use of a median split or 33.3% split in such cases has been shown to systematically understate the size of the effect (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990), the reported or derived effects for these studies were statistically corrected before analysis (see Table 1). Similarly, reported effects were systematically understated due to imperfect measurement of both independent and dependent variables. Using the actual or estimated reliability for each

Authors: Witt, Paul., Wheeless, Lawrence. and Allen, Mike.
first   previous   Page 12 of 41   next   last



background image
Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 12
1989), and eleven studies did not report results in a manner that enabled meta-analytic
comparison (Allen, O’Mara, & Long, 1987; Andersen & Withrow, 1981; Daniel, 2000; Frymier,
1993; Furio, 1987; Orpen, 1994; Sidelinger & McCroskey, 1997; Thomas, 1994; Valencic, 2001;
Walker & Hackman, 1991; Wanzer & Frymier, 1999). Thus, 81 studies were included in the
meta-analysis (see Table 1).
Coding of Studies
The correlation coefficient r was selected as the appropriate effect size statistic, and
qualified researchers collaborated in the coding of the manuscripts for individual effect sizes.
Following the principles of variance-centered meta-analysis, average correlations were computed
in cases of multiple measurement of the same variable (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). When
necessary, appropriate calculations were made to statistically transform reported effects into
correlation coefficients (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990). In cases where findings were deemed
statistically non-significant, actual correlations were computed whenever possible, but a zero
effect size was recorded if no details were present.
Before analysis, the average correlation coefficients of each study were adjusted to
correct for statistical or design artifacts. In four studies (Comstock et al., 1995; Hess & Smythe,
2001; Menzel & Carrell, 1999; Messman & Jones-Corley, 2001), continuous immediacy data
had been grouped by researchers for the purpose of analysis in 2-group or 3-group research
designs. Because the use of a median split or 33.3% split in such cases has been shown to
systematically understate the size of the effect (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990), the reported or derived
effects for these studies were statistically corrected before analysis (see Table 1).
Similarly, reported effects were systematically understated due to imperfect measurement
of both independent and dependent variables. Using the actual or estimated reliability for each


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 12 of 41   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.