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A Meta-Analytical Review of the Relationship between Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning
Unformatted Document Text:  Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 13 instrument, reported effects were adjusted to correct for attenuated measurement (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990). For 1-item or 2-item measures, an average reliability of .60 was assumed (Hedges & Olkin, 1985). This adjustment was applied, for example, to effects derived from perceived learning data gathered through the widely used learning loss measure. After these corrections were made, both the average effect and the estimate of variance were slightly larger than originally reported. See Table 1 for the reported or derived correlation (r) and the corrected correlation (r’). ______________________ Table 1 about here ______________________ Statistical Analysis Variance-centered meta-analysis provides a means of objectively comparing average effects across a group of studies. One advantage of meta-analysis is that the presence of Type II error can be minimized by computing a weighted average correlation for each study in accordance with its sample size. Weighting the average effect acknowledges the fact that larger samples generally provide a more accurate estimate of the true population than do smaller samples. In addition to average effects, the variance of correlations is also examined for homogeneity, using a chi-square to compare the observed variance with the expected variance (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990). A significant chi-square implies the presence of a moderator variable, which may produce differences between the average effects in subsets of the group of studies. Results Comparisons in the overall analysis found a positive and substantial relationship between overall teacher immediacy and overall student learning (average r = .500, var. = .037, k = 81, N

Authors: Witt, Paul., Wheeless, Lawrence. and Allen, Mike.
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Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 13
instrument, reported effects were adjusted to correct for attenuated measurement (Hunter &
Schmidt, 1990). For 1-item or 2-item measures, an average reliability of .60 was assumed
(Hedges & Olkin, 1985). This adjustment was applied, for example, to effects derived from
perceived learning data gathered through the widely used learning loss measure. After these
corrections were made, both the average effect and the estimate of variance were slightly larger
than originally reported. See Table 1 for the reported or derived correlation (r) and the corrected
correlation (r’).
______________________
Table 1 about here
______________________
Statistical Analysis
Variance-centered meta-analysis provides a means of objectively comparing average
effects across a group of studies. One advantage of meta-analysis is that the presence of Type II
error can be minimized by computing a weighted average correlation for each study in
accordance with its sample size. Weighting the average effect acknowledges the fact that larger
samples generally provide a more accurate estimate of the true population than do smaller
samples. In addition to average effects, the variance of correlations is also examined for
homogeneity, using a chi-square to compare the observed variance with the expected variance
(Hunter & Schmidt, 1990). A significant chi-square implies the presence of a moderator variable,
which may produce differences between the average effects in subsets of the group of studies.
Results
Comparisons in the overall analysis found a positive and substantial relationship between
overall teacher immediacy and overall student learning (average r = .500, var. = .037, k = 81, N


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