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A Meta-Analytical Review of the Relationship between Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning
Unformatted Document Text:  Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 14 = 24,474). Relationships of similar strength were found for teacher nonverbal immediacy and overall learning (average r = .481, var. = .040, k = 68, N = 221,171) and teacher verbal immediacy and overall learning (average r = .472, var. = .036, k = 29, N = 8,468). Similar but slightly higher correlations were found among studies that measured teacher immediacy as a single construct consisting of both verbal and nonverbal behaviors combined (average r = .545, var. = .035, k = 12, N = 3,158). These general results should be interpreted with caution, however, because each of these samples was found to be heterogeneous (overall X 2 (80) = 788.48, p <.05; nonverbal X 2 (67) = 716.83, p < .05; verbal X 2 (28) = 220.22, p < .05; combined-only immediacy X 2 (11) = 117.46, p < .05), indicating the possibility of one or more moderator variables. No significant differences were found in overall teacher immediacy and overall learning between published studies (average r = .505, var. = .041, k = 54, N = 15,619) and unpublished studies (average r = .490, var. = .030, k = 27, N = 8,855), or between samples of non-U.S. student groups (average r = .468, var. = .053, k = 14, N = 2,700) and US-only student groups (average r = .506, var. = .034, k = 67, N = 21,774). However, a significantly larger effect (t = 2.906 (79) , p = <.01) was obtained in overall teacher immediacy and overall learning between studies that used survey questionnaires (average r = .518, var. = .034, k = 74, N = 22,915) and studies that used experimental research designs (average r = .306, var. = .032, k = 7, N = 1,559). Again, persistent heterogeneity among all these samples implied the presence of one or more moderator variables causing greater variance in the samples than would be expected from random sampling error alone. In search of moderator variables, we examined the associations among each of three types of teacher immediacy (nonverbal, verbal, and combined-only) and each of three types of

Authors: Witt, Paul., Wheeless, Lawrence. and Allen, Mike.
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Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 14
= 24,474). Relationships of similar strength were found for teacher nonverbal immediacy and
overall learning (average r = .481, var. = .040, k = 68, N = 221,171) and teacher verbal
immediacy and overall learning (average r = .472, var. = .036, k = 29, N = 8,468). Similar but
slightly higher correlations were found among studies that measured teacher immediacy as a
single construct consisting of both verbal and nonverbal behaviors combined (average r = .545,
var. = .035, k = 12, N = 3,158). These general results should be interpreted with caution,
however, because each of these samples was found to be heterogeneous (overall X
2
(80)
= 788.48,
p <.05; nonverbal X
2
(67)
= 716.83, p < .05; verbal X
2
(28)
= 220.22, p < .05; combined-only
immediacy X
2
(11)
= 117.46, p < .05), indicating the possibility of one or more moderator
variables.
No significant differences were found in overall teacher immediacy and overall learning
between published studies (average r = .505, var. = .041, k = 54, N = 15,619) and unpublished
studies (average r = .490, var. = .030, k = 27, N = 8,855), or between samples of non-U.S.
student groups (average r = .468, var. = .053, k = 14, N = 2,700) and US-only student groups
(average r = .506, var. = .034, k = 67, N = 21,774).
However, a significantly larger effect (t =
2.906
(79)
, p = <.01) was obtained in overall teacher immediacy and overall learning between
studies that used survey questionnaires (average r = .518, var. = .034, k = 74, N = 22,915) and
studies that used experimental research designs (average r = .306, var. = .032, k = 7, N = 1,559).
Again, persistent heterogeneity among all these samples implied the presence of one or more
moderator variables causing greater variance in the samples than would be expected from
random sampling error alone.
In search of moderator variables, we examined the associations among each of three
types of teacher immediacy (nonverbal, verbal, and combined-only) and each of three types of


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