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A Meta-Analytical Review of the Relationship between Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning
Unformatted Document Text:  Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 16 variance difference trend could well be attributable to a more global response bias resulting from the combination in the questionnaires. In search of moderators of these overall findings, subsequent analyses were conducted on various sub-groupings of studies. Published and unpublished research produced similar results in terms of the magnitude of association between teacher immediacy and overall learning. The 26% shared variance between overall immediacy and overall learning derived from published research (average r = .505, k = 54, N = 15,619) did not differ significantly from the 24% shared variance in unpublished research (average r = .490, k = 27, N = 8,855). Likewise, no significant difference in r’s and related shared variance was observed for overall immediacy and overall learning between US samples (average r = .506, k = 67, N = 21,774, 26% shared variance) and non-US samples (average r = .468, k = 14, N = 2,700, 22% shared variance). Lack of significance does not, however, indicate lack of any cultural differences in immediacy and learning across different cultural groupings. Differences in the immediacy/learning association were found among specific cultures in the 14 non-US studies and in the 4 studies that compared results across ethnic groups of US students (Mortenson, 1994; Neuliep, 1995; Powell & Harville, 1990; Sanders & Wiseman, 1990). However, no single nationality or cultural grouping reflected a sufficient number of studies for meaningful meta-analysis. While some cultural differences do exist, significant positive correlations between teacher immediacy and affective and perceived learning were indicated across almost all of the nationalities and cultural groupings that were examined. However, none of the cross-cultural studies investigated cognitive learning performance as indicated by tests of recall, recognition, exams, or course grades. In overall learning attributable to overall teacher immediacy, significant differences were obtained between the results from survey-questionnaire research (average r = .518, k = 74, N =

Authors: Witt, Paul., Wheeless, Lawrence. and Allen, Mike.
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Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 16
variance difference trend could well be attributable to a more global response bias resulting from
the combination in the questionnaires.
In search of moderators of these overall findings, subsequent analyses were conducted on
various sub-groupings of studies. Published and unpublished research produced similar results in
terms of the magnitude of association between teacher immediacy and overall learning. The 26%
shared variance between overall immediacy and overall learning derived from published research
(average r = .505, k = 54, N = 15,619) did not differ significantly from the 24% shared variance
in unpublished research (average r = .490, k = 27, N = 8,855). Likewise, no significant
difference in r’s and related shared variance was observed for overall immediacy and overall
learning between US samples (average r = .506, k = 67, N = 21,774, 26% shared variance) and
non-US samples (average r = .468, k = 14, N = 2,700, 22% shared variance). Lack of
significance does not, however, indicate lack of any cultural differences in immediacy and
learning across different cultural groupings. Differences in the immediacy/learning association
were found among specific cultures in the 14 non-US studies and in the 4 studies that compared
results across ethnic groups of US students (Mortenson, 1994; Neuliep, 1995; Powell & Harville,
1990; Sanders & Wiseman, 1990). However, no single nationality or cultural grouping reflected
a sufficient number of studies for meaningful meta-analysis. While some cultural differences do
exist, significant positive correlations between teacher immediacy and affective and perceived
learning were indicated across almost all of the nationalities and cultural groupings that were
examined. However, none of the cross-cultural studies investigated cognitive learning
performance as indicated by tests of recall, recognition, exams, or course grades.
In overall learning attributable to overall teacher immediacy, significant differences were
obtained between the results from survey-questionnaire research (average r = .518, k = 74, N =


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