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A Meta-Analytical Review of the Relationship between Teacher Immediacy and Student Learning
Unformatted Document Text:  Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 38 Gorham & Zakahi 1990 526 .560 .766 .595 .801 . . PL .540 .587 .560 .599 . . AL Hackman & Walker 1990 102 .050 .072 .040 .057 . . PL .130 .151 .170 .195 . . AL Hess & Smythe 2001 318 .310 .445 .370 .524 . . PL .100 .128 .040 .051 . . CL .630 .730 .520 .595 . . AL Hinkle 1998 151 .710 .972 . . . . PL Jordan 1989 603 .550 .601 .630 .689 . . PL .140 .151 .210 .226 . . CL Kearney et al. 1985 642 .390 .424 . . . . AL Kelley & Gorham 1988 100 .300 .364 . . . . CL McAlister 2001 150 . . . . .620 .821 PL . . . . .540 .568 AL McCroskey et al. Australia 1996a 139 .330 .394 . . . . AL McCroskey et al. Finland 1996a 151 .430 .494 . . . . AL McCroskey et al. Puerto Rico 1996a 431 .190 .244 . . . . AL McCroskey et al. U.S. 1996a 365 .330 .375 . . . . AL McCroskey et al. Australia 1996b 139 .230 .334 . . . . PL McCroskey et al. Finland 1996b 151 .635 .869 . . . . PL McCroskey et al. Puerto Rico 1996b 431 .435 .676 . . . . PL McCroskey et al. U.S. 1996b 365 .450 .630 . . . . PL McDowell & McDowell 1990 160 .525 .753 .415 .588 . . PL .630 .738 .540 .625 . . AL McDowell et al. 1980 377 .245 .297 . . . . CL .425 .492 . . . . AL Menzel & Carrell 1999 256 .110 .162 .462 .651 . . PL Messman & Jones-Corley 2001 859 .150 .184 . . . . CL .288 .338 . . . . AL Mortenson Euro-American 1994 67 .590 .739 . . . . AL Mortenson Asian-American 1994 60 .600 .752 . . . . AL Mortenson Asian 1994 56 .230 .288 . . . . AL Mottet & Beebe 2001 465 .450 .642 . . . . PL .490 .558 . . . . AL Myers et al. China 1998 140 .150 .231 .270 .400 . . PL .110 .190 .270 .447 . . AL Neuliep African American 1995 77 . . . . .335 .453 PL . . . . .280 .304 AL Neuliep Euro-American 1995 113 . . . . .515 .697 PL . . . . .640 .696 AL Neuliep U.S. 1997 191 .365 .514 .390 .546 . . PL .470 .532 .540 .604 . . AL Neuliep Japan 1997 227 .135 .211 .115 .166 . . PL .250 .320 .160 .189 . . AL Peterson 1994 97 .230 .343 .340 .500 . . PL .180 .217 .480 .570 . . AL Plax et al Study 1 1986 620 .670 .744 . . . . AL Plax et al Study 2 1986 1320 .610 .670 . . . . AL Powell & Harville White 1990 69 .380 .491 .350 .401 . . AL Powell & Harville Latino 1990 128 .350 .414 .740 .828 . . AL Powell & Harville AsianAmer 1990 85 .340 .454 .190 .215 . . AL Richmond 1990 366 .410 .585 . . . . PL .530 .597 . . . . AL Richmond et al. Study 1 1987 361 .700 .969 . . . . PL Richmond et al. Study 2 1987 358 .555 .801 . . . . PL Roach & Byrne U.S. 2001 130 .620 .686 . . . . PL

Authors: Witt, Paul., Wheeless, Lawrence. and Allen, Mike.
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Immediacy and Learning Meta-Analysis 38
Gorham & Zakahi
1990
526 .560
.766
.595
.801
.
.
PL
.540 .587 .560 .599 .
.
AL
Hackman & Walker
1990
102 .050
.072
.040
.057
.
.
PL
.130 .151 .170 .195 .
.
AL
Hess & Smythe
2001
318 .310
.445
.370
.524
.
.
PL
.100 .128 .040 .051 .
.
CL
.630 .730 .520 .595 .
.
AL
Hinkle
1998
151 .710
.972
.
.
.
.
PL
Jordan
1989
603 .550
.601
.630
.689
.
.
PL
.140 .151 .210 .226 .
.
CL
Kearney et al.
1985
642 .390
.424
.
.
.
.
AL
Kelley & Gorham
1988
100 .300
.364
.
.
.
.
CL
McAlister
2001
150 .
.
.
.
.620
.821
PL
.
.
.
.
.540 .568
AL
McCroskey et al. Australia
1996a 139 .330
.394
.
.
.
.
AL
McCroskey et al. Finland
1996a 151 .430
.494
.
.
.
.
AL
McCroskey et al. Puerto Rico
1996a 431 .190
.244
.
.
.
.
AL
McCroskey et al. U.S.
1996a 365 .330
.375
.
.
.
.
AL
McCroskey et al. Australia
1996b 139 .230
.334
.
.
.
.
PL
McCroskey et al. Finland
1996b 151 .635
.869
.
.
.
.
PL
McCroskey et al. Puerto Rico
1996b 431 .435
.676
.
.
.
.
PL
McCroskey et al. U.S.
1996b 365 .450
.630
.
.
.
.
PL
McDowell & McDowell
1990
160 .525
.753
.415
.588
.
.
PL
.630 .738 .540 .625 .
.
AL
McDowell et al.
1980
377 .245
.297
.
.
.
.
CL
.425 .492 .
.
.
.
AL
Menzel & Carrell
1999
256 .110
.162
.462
.651
.
.
PL
Messman & Jones-Corley
2001
859 .150
.184
.
.
.
.
CL
.288 .338 .
.
.
.
AL
Mortenson Euro-American
1994
67 .590
.739
.
.
.
.
AL
Mortenson Asian-American
1994
60 .600
.752
.
.
.
.
AL
Mortenson Asian
1994
56 .230
.288
.
.
.
.
AL
Mottet & Beebe
2001
465 .450
.642
.
.
.
.
PL
.490 .558 .
.
.
.
AL
Myers et al. China
1998
140 .150
.231
.270
.400
.
.
PL
.110 .190 .270 .447 .
.
AL
Neuliep African American
1995
77 .
.
.
.
.335
.453
PL
.
.
.
.
.280 .304
AL
Neuliep Euro-American
1995
113 .
.
.
.
.515
.697
PL
.
.
.
.
.640 .696
AL
Neuliep U.S.
1997
191 .365
.514
.390
.546
.
.
PL
.470 .532 .540 .604 .
.
AL
Neuliep Japan
1997
227 .135
.211
.115
.166
.
.
PL
.250 .320 .160 .189 .
.
AL
Peterson
1994
97 .230
.343
.340
.500
.
.
PL
.180 .217 .480 .570 .
.
AL
Plax et al Study 1
1986
620 .670
.744
.
.
.
.
AL
Plax et al Study 2
1986
1320 .610
.670
.
.
.
.
AL
Powell & Harville White
1990
69 .380
.491
.350
.401
.
.
AL
Powell & Harville Latino
1990
128 .350
.414
.740
.828
.
.
AL
Powell & Harville AsianAmer
1990
85 .340
.454
.190
.215
.
.
AL
Richmond
1990
366 .410
.585
.
.
.
.
PL
.530 .597 .
.
.
.
AL
Richmond et al. Study 1
1987
361 .700
.969
.
.
.
.
PL
Richmond et al. Study 2
1987
358 .555
.801
.
.
.
.
PL
Roach & Byrne U.S.
2001
130 .620
.686
.
.
.
.
PL


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