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Emotional non redundancy in television messages: The impact on audience memory
Unformatted Document Text:  ICA-4-10233 Page 3 of 4 emotional non redundancy The study will help shed light on how viewers process information from television and the impact that emotions in the message have on overall recall. It is practical interest to messages with an informational content (like news and education) and those with persuasive content (like advertising and political campaigns). Design: This is a 2(redundancy) X 2(channel) X 2(valence) X 3(story) X 3(order) design. Order is between subjects while redundancy, channel, valence and story are within subjects. Redundancy has two levels redundant and non redundant. Valence has two levels positive valence and negative valence. Arousal is controlled for in the stories by keeping it low. Channel also has two levels audio track and video track. Story is the number of stories for each of the four conditions of redundant positive, redundant negative, non redundant with audio track carrying the positive and video track carrying the negative, and non redundant with the audio track carrying the negative and the video track carrying the positive. From a sample of 36 news stories, 12 will be chosen, three in each of the conditions. The stories are chosen based on two pretests. The first measures valence in the two streams of each news story and the second measures the overall relatedness (redundancy) between the two channels in each news story. A total of 40 subjects who are undergraduates will participate in the experiment. Dependent variables: Free recall: Subjects will list the news stories they watched. Cued recall (audio/video): Only the topic of the news story will be presented to subjects. Their writing will then be analyzed for relevant important information recalled from the

Authors: Kamhawi, Rasha.
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ICA-4-10233 Page 3 of 4 emotional non redundancy
The study will help shed light on how viewers process information from
television and the impact that emotions in the message have on overall recall. It is
practical interest to messages with an informational content (like news and education)
and those with persuasive content (like advertising and political campaigns).
Design:
This is a 2(redundancy) X 2(channel) X 2(valence) X 3(story) X 3(order) design. Order is
between subjects while redundancy, channel, valence and story are within subjects.
Redundancy has two levels redundant and non redundant. Valence has two levels positive
valence and negative valence. Arousal is controlled for in the stories by keeping it low.
Channel also has two levels audio track and video track. Story is the number of stories for
each of the four conditions of redundant positive, redundant negative, non redundant with
audio track carrying the positive and video track carrying the negative, and non redundant
with the audio track carrying the negative and the video track carrying the positive.
From a sample of 36 news stories, 12 will be chosen, three in each of the conditions. The
stories are chosen based on two pretests. The first measures valence in the two streams of
each news story and the second measures the overall relatedness (redundancy) between
the two channels in each news story. A total of 40 subjects who are undergraduates will
participate in the experiment.
Dependent variables:
Free recall: Subjects will list the news stories they watched.
Cued recall (audio/video): Only the topic of the news story will be presented to subjects.
Their writing will then be analyzed for relevant important information recalled from the


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