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Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation

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Abstract:

The purpose of this experimental study was to examine whether and in what ways the sex of the helper and the recipient moderate the effects of comforting messages in face-to-face interactions. A total of 216 participants disclosed an emotionally upsetting event to a confederate trained to display different levels of nonverbal immediacy and verbal person centeredness. Men and women responded very similarly to comforting messages that exhibited different levels of verbal person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy, and this response similarity was not moderated by the sex of the helper. Both men and women were most comforted by messages that exhibited high levels of person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy, and they were least comforted by messages that exhibited low levels of these qualities. Moreover, both sexes viewed highly person-centered and immediate messages as exhibiting the highest comforting quality, and, with one minor exception, both sexes viewed helpers who used these messages as the most competent.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

effect (157), helper (148), messag (144), person (124), sex (121), comfort (120), recipi (115), interact (85), support (81), emot (75), high (70), men (69), centered (69), 2 (68), nonverb (67), women (66), differ (62), communic (59), burleson (59), social (56), immediaci (55),

Author's Keywords:

Emotional support, comforting messages, verbal person centeredness, nonverbal immediacy
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Association:
Name: International Communication Association
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http://www.icahdq.org


Citation:
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MLA Citation:

Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant. "Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA, May 27, 2003 <Not Available>. 2009-05-26 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p112250_index.html>

APA Citation:

Jones, S. and Burleson, B. R. , 2003-05-27 "Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott Hotel, San Diego, CA Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p112250_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this experimental study was to examine whether and in what ways the sex of the helper and the recipient moderate the effects of comforting messages in face-to-face interactions. A total of 216 participants disclosed an emotionally upsetting event to a confederate trained to display different levels of nonverbal immediacy and verbal person centeredness. Men and women responded very similarly to comforting messages that exhibited different levels of verbal person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy, and this response similarity was not moderated by the sex of the helper. Both men and women were most comforted by messages that exhibited high levels of person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy, and they were least comforted by messages that exhibited low levels of these qualities. Moreover, both sexes viewed highly person-centered and immediate messages as exhibiting the highest comforting quality, and, with one minor exception, both sexes viewed helpers who used these messages as the most competent.

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Document Type: .PDF
Page count: 51
Word count: 11815
Text sample:
Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 1 Abstract The purpose of this experimental study was to examine whether and in what ways the sex of the helper and the recipient moderate the effects of comforting messages in face-to-face interactions. A total of 216 participants disclosed an emotionally upsetting event to a confederate trained to display different levels of nonverbal immediacy and verbal person centeredness. Men and women responded very similarly to comforting messages that exhibited different levels of verbal
Verbal Person Centeredness of Message Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 51 6 5.5 Perceived Helper Normativeness 5 Male Recipients 4.5 Female Recipients 4 3.5 3 Low Moderate High Verbal Person Centeredness of Message


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