All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 10 strong, linear effects for both verbal person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy on recipients’ evaluations of the quality of confederates’ comforting messages. In the present study we extended the research of Jones and Guerrero (2001) in several important ways. First, we incorporated the sex of both helpers and recipients as factors in our design, an obvious necessity given the focal purpose of our study. Second, we incorporated a broader array of dependent variables than did Jones and Guerrero, who only included one global assessment of perceived message quality in their study. Specifically, we included a post- interaction assessment of affective improvement by the recipient. Given that comforting interactions typically have the primary functional aim of improving the affect state of a distressed other (see Burleson, 1994a; Dunkel-Schetter et al., 1992), assessing actual affective improvement, as reported by the recipient immediately following the interaction, would seem to be especially relevant. We also included the index of perceived message quality used by Jones and Guerrero to ascertain whether assessments of affective improvement and perceived message quality are redundant indices or provide distinct information. In addition, to explore how interactions among gender and the message variables affected perceptions of the helper’s qualities, we included three assessments (by recipients) of the helper’s communicative competence: perceived sensitivity, conversational engagement, and normativeness. Perceived sensitivity of the helper is obviously a critical quality in the context of comforting interactions. Conversational engagement (i.e., interaction involvement) and normativeness (i.e., the extent to which helper behavior matches recipient expectations) are more general features of communicative competence that have particular relevance in initial interactions (e.g., Cegala, 1984; Spitzberg, 1988). The perceived sensitivity of the helper was expected to vary linearly as a function of both verbal person centeredness and nonverbal

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
first   previous   Page 10 of 51   next   last



background image
Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 10
strong, linear effects for both verbal person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy on
recipients’ evaluations of the quality of confederates’ comforting messages.
In the present study we extended the research of Jones and Guerrero (2001) in several
important ways. First, we incorporated the sex of both helpers and recipients as factors in our
design, an obvious necessity given the focal purpose of our study. Second, we incorporated a
broader array of dependent variables than did Jones and Guerrero, who only included one global
assessment of perceived message quality in their study. Specifically, we included a post-
interaction assessment of affective improvement by the recipient. Given that comforting
interactions typically have the primary functional aim of improving the affect state of a
distressed other (see Burleson, 1994a; Dunkel-Schetter et al., 1992), assessing actual affective
improvement, as reported by the recipient immediately following the interaction, would seem to
be especially relevant. We also included the index of perceived message quality used by Jones
and Guerrero to ascertain whether assessments of affective improvement and perceived message
quality are redundant indices or provide distinct information.
In addition, to explore how interactions among gender and the message variables affected
perceptions of the helper’s qualities, we included three assessments (by recipients) of the
helper’s communicative competence: perceived sensitivity, conversational engagement, and
normativeness. Perceived sensitivity of the helper is obviously a critical quality in the context of
comforting interactions. Conversational engagement (i.e., interaction involvement) and
normativeness (i.e., the extent to which helper behavior matches recipient expectations) are more
general features of communicative competence that have particular relevance in initial
interactions (e.g., Cegala, 1984; Spitzberg, 1988). The perceived sensitivity of the helper was
expected to vary linearly as a function of both verbal person centeredness and nonverbal


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 10 of 51   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.