All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 14 Confederates were also instructed to orient their body positions completely toward the participants, to increase eye contact to approximately 80% to 90% of the time, to smile a lot when appropriate, and to put “lots of warmth” in their voices. Overall, confederates were told to act extremely friendly and concerned during their interactions with participants. To assure that confederates’ high levels of nonverbal immediacy would be interpreted as positive (i.e., expressing warmth, liking, and care), confederates were trained particularly to display high levels of positive affect (i.e., smiling when appropriate), facial animation, and vocal warmth. In the low conditions confederates were instructed to decrease their verbal and nonverbal comforting behaviors markedly from what they would typically do in interactions with strangers. They were told to reduce eye contact to approximately 20% to 30% of the time, to avoid smiling, and to look around the room. They were also told to lean back and away from the participant while markedly increasing their distance from the partner. Confederates were also trained to express a lack of interest or boredom, and to appear distracted or tired during the conversation. To justify such behavior, confederates were told that people sometimes convey low immediacy unintentionally because they do not know what to say and often feel overwhelmed when friends disclose difficult experiences. Confederates were also trained to convey low person centeredness in the form of statements that encouraged the emotionally distressed person to forget about her or his feelings. (e.g., “I think you oughta get over it”), minimized feelings (e.g., “Oh, come on, it’s not the end of the world. It can’t really be that bad. You’ll get over it”), or explicitly blamed the participants for the problematic situation (e.g., “Well, you could have studied harder”). Confederates were also encouraged to switch the conversation to an unrelated topic or to begin talking about personal concerns (e.g., “Guess what happened to me?”). Details regarding confederate training, the experimental set-up, as well as the coding of confederate behavior to

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
first   previous   Page 14 of 51   next   last



background image
Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 14
Confederates were also instructed to orient their body positions completely toward the
participants, to increase eye contact to approximately 80% to 90% of the time, to smile a lot
when appropriate, and to put “lots of warmth” in their voices. Overall, confederates were told to
act extremely friendly and concerned during their interactions with participants. To assure that
confederates’ high levels of nonverbal immediacy would be interpreted as positive (i.e.,
expressing warmth, liking, and care), confederates were trained particularly to display high
levels of positive affect (i.e., smiling when appropriate), facial animation, and vocal warmth.
In the low conditions confederates were instructed to decrease their verbal and nonverbal
comforting behaviors markedly from what they would typically do in interactions with strangers.
They were told to reduce eye contact to approximately 20% to 30% of the time, to avoid smiling,
and to look around the room. They were also told to lean back and away from the participant
while markedly increasing their distance from the partner. Confederates were also trained to
express a lack of interest or boredom, and to appear distracted or tired during the conversation.
To justify such behavior, confederates were told that people sometimes convey low immediacy
unintentionally because they do not know what to say and often feel overwhelmed when friends
disclose difficult experiences. Confederates were also trained to convey low person centeredness
in the form of statements that encouraged the emotionally distressed person to forget about her or
his feelings. (e.g., “I think you oughta get over it”), minimized feelings (e.g., “Oh, come on, it’s
not the end of the world. It can’t really be that bad. You’ll get over it”), or explicitly blamed the
participants for the problematic situation (e.g., “Well, you could have studied harder”).
Confederates were also encouraged to switch the conversation to an unrelated topic or to begin
talking about personal concerns (e.g., “Guess what happened to me?”). Details regarding
confederate training, the experimental set-up, as well as the coding of confederate behavior to


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 14 of 51   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.