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Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 16 significant linear effect for NVI, F (1, 213) = 3548.75, p < .001, η 2 = .94. Means and standard deviations for the manipulation check associated with NVI are displayed in Tables 1 and 2. Results indicated that while the NVI manipulation was highly successful, there was a small spill over effect of VPC on NVI. As suggested by the marginal means in Table 1, the moderate and high VPC conditions were rated as more nonverbally immediate than the low VPC condition. Nevertheless, the massive main effect for the NVI manipulation outweighs the effects for the VPC main effect and the NVI x VPC interaction effect. It is also noteworthy that mean ratings for the high, moderate, and low NVI conditions occupied the high, middle, and low ends of the 7-point scale. Verbal person centeredness. The VPC manipulation was analyzed with a 3 x 3 (NVI: high, moderate, low x VPC: high, moderate, low) ANOVA, with coder ratings of VPC as the dependent measure. The ANOVA detected a significant main effect for VPC, F (2, 207) = 696.04, p < .001, η 2 = .87. The main effect for NVI and the VPC x NVI interaction were nonsignificant. Means and standard deviations for the manipulation check associated with VPC are displayed in Tables 3 and 4. As for NVI, the mean ratings on VPC occupied the high, middle, and low points of the scale. Participant Ratings of Affective States Recipient affect subsequent to the comforting interactions was assessed with two scales specifically constructed for this study. First, the Affective Improvement scale consisted of eight items that described changes in affect states (e.g., “I feel better after having talked with my conversational partner,” “I feel more optimistic now that I have talked with my conversational partner”). Participants responded to each item with Likert scales that ranged from 1 (very strongly disagree) to 7 (very strongly agree). This scale was adapted from an instrument

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
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Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 16
significant linear effect for NVI, F (1, 213) = 3548.75, p < .001,
η
2
= .94. Means and standard
deviations for the manipulation check associated with NVI are displayed in Tables 1 and 2.
Results indicated that while the NVI manipulation was highly successful, there was a
small spill over effect of VPC on NVI. As suggested by the marginal means in Table 1, the
moderate and high VPC conditions were rated as more nonverbally immediate than the low VPC
condition. Nevertheless, the massive main effect for the NVI manipulation outweighs the effects
for the VPC main effect and the NVI x VPC interaction effect. It is also noteworthy that mean
ratings for the high, moderate, and low NVI conditions occupied the high, middle, and low ends
of the 7-point scale.
Verbal person centeredness. The VPC manipulation was analyzed with a 3 x 3 (NVI:
high, moderate, low x VPC: high, moderate, low) ANOVA, with coder ratings of VPC as the
dependent measure. The ANOVA detected a significant main effect for VPC, F (2, 207) =
696.04, p < .001,
η
2
= .87. The main effect for NVI and the VPC x NVI interaction were
nonsignificant. Means and standard deviations for the manipulation check associated with VPC
are displayed in Tables 3 and 4. As for NVI, the mean ratings on VPC occupied the high,
middle, and low points of the scale.
Participant Ratings of Affective States
Recipient affect subsequent to the comforting interactions was assessed with two scales
specifically constructed for this study. First, the Affective Improvement scale consisted of eight
items that described changes in affect states (e.g., “I feel better after having talked with my
conversational partner,” “I feel more optimistic now that I have talked with my conversational
partner”). Participants responded to each item with Likert scales that ranged from 1 (very
strongly disagree) to 7 (very strongly agree). This scale was adapted from an instrument


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