All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 19 The hypotheses were addressed initially through two multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs): one analysis on the two primary outcome variables that assessed recipient affect states (affective improvement and perceived comforting quality of the helper’s behavior), and the second analysis on the three assessments of helper communicative competence (perceived sensitivity, conversational engagement, and normativeness). Both sets of analyses reflected a 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 (recipient sex x helper sex x VPC x NVI) design. In cases where significant multivariate effects were observed for the factors, Roy-Bargmann stepdown tests were conducted to control for redundancy among the dependent variables. Statistical power (with = .05) for the main effects of recipient and helper sex was .99 for large effect sizes (f = .40) and .93 for medium effect sizes (f = .25). Power for the main effects of VPC and NVI was .99 for large effect sizes and .86 for medium effect sizes. For the theoretically important two-way and three- way interactions that involved sex of recipients and/or helpers and message form (either VPC or NVI), power was also .99 for large effect sizes and .86 for medium effect sizes. For the two-way interaction between the two message factors, the three-way interactions that involved both message factors, and the four-way interaction among all the factors, power was .98 for large effects and .78 for medium effects. Analyses for Affective Improvement and Comforting Quality The MANOVA on affective improvement and perceived comforting quality detected a significant multivariate main effect for VPC, Wilks’ = 0.82, F (4, 358) = 9.14, p < .001, 2 = .09, as well as a significant main effect for NVI, Wilks’ = 0.94, F (4, 358) = 2.96, p < .02, 2 = .03. In addition, the multivariate main effect for recipient sex approached significance, Wilks’ = 0.97, F (2, 179) = 2.55, p < .09, 2 = .03. No other multivariate effects approached

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
first   previous   Page 19 of 51   next   last



background image
Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 19
The hypotheses were addressed initially through two multivariate analyses of variance
(MANOVAs): one analysis on the two primary outcome variables that assessed recipient affect
states (affective improvement and perceived comforting quality of the helper’s behavior), and the
second analysis on the three assessments of helper communicative competence (perceived
sensitivity, conversational engagement, and normativeness). Both sets of analyses reflected a 2 x
2 x 3 x 3 (recipient sex x helper sex x VPC x NVI) design. In cases where significant
multivariate effects were observed for the factors, Roy-Bargmann stepdown tests were conducted
to control for redundancy among the dependent variables. Statistical power (with = .05) for the
main effects of recipient and helper sex was .99 for large effect sizes (f = .40) and .93 for
medium effect sizes (f = .25). Power for the main effects of VPC and NVI was .99 for large
effect sizes and .86 for medium effect sizes. For the theoretically important two-way and three-
way interactions that involved sex of recipients and/or helpers and message form (either VPC or
NVI), power was also .99 for large effect sizes and .86 for medium effect sizes. For the two-way
interaction between the two message factors, the three-way interactions that involved both
message factors, and the four-way interaction among all the factors, power was .98 for large
effects and .78 for medium effects.
Analyses for Affective Improvement and Comforting Quality
The MANOVA on affective improvement and perceived comforting quality detected a
significant multivariate main effect for VPC, Wilks’
= 0.82, F (4, 358) = 9.14, p < .001,
2
=
.09, as well as a significant main effect for NVI, Wilks’
= 0.94, F (4, 358) = 2.96, p < .02,
2
= .03. In addition, the multivariate main effect for recipient sex approached significance, Wilks’
= 0.97, F (2, 179) = 2.55, p < .09,
2
= .03. No other multivariate effects approached


Convention
Convention is an application service for managing large or small academic conferences, annual meetings, and other types of events!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 19 of 51   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.