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Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 21 Exploratory univariate analyses were conducted to assess effects of all other factors and their interactions on these two dependent variables. None of these analyses approached significance, which indicates that the effects of VPC and NVI were not moderated by the sex of either recipients or helpers. Analyses for Perceived Helper Competence The 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 (recipient sex x helper sex x VPC x NVI) MANOVA on the three perceived helper competence variables detected a significant multivariate main effect for each of the four factors: recipient sex, Wilks’ = F (3, 178) = 2.93, p < .04, 2 = .05, helper sex, Wilks’ = F (3, 178) = 3.21, p < .03, 2 = .05, VPC, Wilks’ = F (6, 356) = 9.91, p < .001, 2 = .14, and NVI, Wilks’ = F (6, 356) = 5.96, p < .001, 2 = .09. In addition, the MANOVA detected two significant two-way interactions: between recipient sex and VPC, Wilks’ = F (6, 356) = 2.44, p < .03, 2 = 04, and between VPC and NVI, Wilks’ = F (12, 471) = 2.12, p < .02, 2 = .05. No other multivariate effects approached significance. Univariate analyses detected main effects for recipient sex on two of the three assessments of perceived helper competence: sensitivity, F (1, 180) = 6.15 p < .02, 2 = .03, and normativeness, F (1, 180) = 8.54, p < .01, 2 = .05. Men perceived helpers as more sensitive than did women (Ms = 5.39 and 4.95, respectively) and as more normative in their conduct (Ms = 5.46 and 5.10 for men and women, respectively). To control for any redundancy in the dependent variables, Roy-Bargmann Step-Down Tests were conducted. In all such analyses for this variable set, the following hierarchy of dependent variables was employed: Perceived helper sensitivity was viewed as the most important aspect of communicative competence in comforting situations, so this variable always served as the initial control variable (or covariate). Conversational engagement was viewed as

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
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Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 21
Exploratory univariate analyses were conducted to assess effects of all other factors and
their interactions on these two dependent variables. None of these analyses approached
significance, which indicates that the effects of VPC and NVI were not moderated by the sex of
either recipients or helpers.
Analyses for Perceived Helper Competence
The 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 (recipient sex x helper sex x VPC x NVI) MANOVA on the three
perceived helper competence variables detected a significant multivariate main effect for each of
the four factors: recipient sex, Wilks’
= F (3, 178) = 2.93, p < .04,
2
= .05, helper sex,
Wilks’
= F (3, 178) = 3.21, p < .03,
2
= .05, VPC, Wilks’
= F (6, 356) = 9.91, p < .001,
2
= .14, and NVI, Wilks’
= F (6, 356) = 5.96, p < .001,
2
= .09. In addition, the MANOVA
detected two significant two-way interactions: between recipient sex and VPC, Wilks’
= F
(6, 356) = 2.44, p < .03,
2
= 04, and between VPC and NVI, Wilks’
= F (12, 471) = 2.12, p <
.02,
2
= .05. No other multivariate effects approached significance.
Univariate analyses detected main effects for recipient sex on two of the three
assessments of perceived helper competence: sensitivity, F (1, 180) = 6.15 p < .02,
2
= .03, and
normativeness, F (1, 180) = 8.54, p < .01,
2
= .05. Men perceived helpers as more sensitive than
did women (Ms = 5.39 and 4.95, respectively) and as more normative in their conduct (Ms = 5.46
and 5.10 for men and women, respectively).
To control for any redundancy in the dependent variables, Roy-Bargmann Step-Down
Tests were conducted. In all such analyses for this variable set, the following hierarchy of
dependent variables was employed: Perceived helper sensitivity was viewed as the most
important aspect of communicative competence in comforting situations, so this variable always
served as the initial control variable (or covariate). Conversational engagement was viewed as


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