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Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 23 of VPC were viewed as most normative. The curvilinear effect was confirmed by a trend analysis on the adjusted means; as anticipated, only the quadratic component of the trend was significant, t (211) = 2.46, p < .02. Univariate analyses detected significant main effects for NVI on all three of the perceived helper competence dependent variables: sensitivity, F (2, 180) = 5.83, p < .005, 2 = .06; engagement, F (2, 180) = 17.04, p < .001, 2 = .16; and normativeness, F (2, 180) = 10.36, p < .001, 2 = .10. The means for these analyses are depicted in Figure 6, and they clearly indicate that for all three assessments, perceived competence increased linearly as a function of NVI. When we controlled for sensitivity, the step-down analysis on engagement detected a highly significant main effect for NVI, F (2, 179) = 11.13, p < .001, 2 = .11, which indicates the independent contribution of engagement to the multivariate effect. However, when both sensitivity and engagement were entered as covariates, the step-down analysis on normativeness, did not detect a significant effect for NVI, F (2, 178) = 1.02, p > .36. Univariate analyses were conducted to explore the multivariate interaction between recipient sex and VPC, and they detected significant interactions between these factors for sensitivity, F (2, 180) = 4.93, p < .01, 2 = .05, and normativeness, F (2, 180) = 5.15, p < .008, 2 = .05. Figure 7 and Figure 8 depict the character of these interactions (for sensitivity and normativeness, respectively): In both cases, women viewed the helper as significantly less competent than men when the helper used messages that exhibited a low level VPC; men and women did not differ in their message evaluations for moderate or highly person-centered messages. However, when sensitivity and engagement were entered as covariates, the step-down analysis on normativeness indicated that normativeness made little unique contribution to the multivariate two-way interaction, F (2, 178) = 2.38, p < .10.

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
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Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 23
of VPC were viewed as most normative. The curvilinear effect was confirmed by a trend
analysis on the adjusted means; as anticipated, only the quadratic component of the trend was
significant, t (211) = 2.46, p < .02.
Univariate analyses detected significant main effects for NVI on all three of the perceived
helper competence dependent variables: sensitivity, F (2, 180) = 5.83, p < .005,
2
= .06;
engagement, F (2, 180) = 17.04, p < .001,
2
= .16; and normativeness, F (2, 180) = 10.36, p <
.001,
2
= .10. The means for these analyses are depicted in Figure 6, and they clearly indicate
that for all three assessments, perceived competence increased linearly as a function of NVI.
When we controlled for sensitivity, the step-down analysis on engagement detected a highly
significant main effect for NVI, F (2, 179) = 11.13, p < .001,
2
= .11, which indicates the
independent contribution of engagement to the multivariate effect. However, when both
sensitivity and engagement were entered as covariates, the step-down analysis on normativeness,
did not detect a significant effect for NVI, F (2, 178) = 1.02, p > .36.
Univariate analyses were conducted to explore the multivariate interaction between
recipient sex and VPC, and they detected significant interactions between these factors for
sensitivity, F (2, 180) = 4.93, p < .01,
2
= .05, and normativeness, F (2, 180) = 5.15, p < .008,
2
= .05. Figure 7 and Figure 8 depict the character of these interactions (for sensitivity and
normativeness, respectively): In both cases, women viewed the helper as significantly less
competent than men when the helper used messages that exhibited a low level VPC; men and
women did not differ in their message evaluations for moderate or highly person-centered
messages. However, when sensitivity and engagement were entered as covariates, the step-down
analysis on normativeness indicated that normativeness made little unique contribution to the
multivariate two-way interaction, F (2, 178) = 2.38, p < .10.


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