All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 24 Univariate analyses were conducted to explore the multivariate interaction between VPC and NVI, and they detected no two-way interactions between these factors for any of the three dependent variables (all ps > .10). However, when both sensitivity and engagement were entered as covariates, the step-down analysis on normativeness detected a significant two-way interaction between the two message factors, F (4, 178) = 4.24, p < .003, 2 = .09. We decomposed this interaction by assessing the simple effects of NVI on the adjusted means for normativeness at each level of VPC. Significant differences in perceived normativeness of the helper due to NVI were observed only in the low VPC condition, F (2, 67) = 4.44, p < .02, 2 = 12. In this condition only, helpers who displayed low levels of immediacy were perceived as significantly (p < .02) less normative (M = 4.34) than helpers who displayed moderate (M = 4.93) or high (M = 4.91) levels of immediacy. Discussion The purpose of this study was to determine whether and in what ways the sex of the helper and the recipient moderate the effects of comforting messages in face-to-face interactions. In particular, we sought to explore whether men and women are best comforted by the same types of comforting messages or whether they are most comforted by different types of emotionally supportive behavior. The results of this experiment indicate that men and women respond very similarly to comforting messages (and helpers) who exhibit different levels of verbal person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy, and that this similarity is not moderated by the sex of the helper. Both men and women were most comforted by messages that exhibit high levels of person centeredness and nonverbal immediacy and least comforted by messages that exhibit low levels of these qualities. Moreover, both men and women viewed highly person-centered and

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
first   previous   Page 24 of 51   next   last



background image
Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 24
Univariate analyses were conducted to explore the multivariate interaction between VPC
and NVI, and they detected no two-way interactions between these factors for any of the three
dependent variables (all ps > .10). However, when both sensitivity and engagement were entered
as covariates, the step-down analysis on normativeness detected a significant two-way
interaction between the two message factors, F (4, 178) = 4.24, p < .003,
2
= .09. We
decomposed this interaction by assessing the simple effects of NVI on the adjusted means for
normativeness at each level of VPC. Significant differences in perceived normativeness of the
helper due to NVI were observed only in the low VPC condition, F (2, 67) = 4.44, p < .02,
2
=
12. In this condition only, helpers who displayed low levels of immediacy were perceived as
significantly (p < .02) less normative (M = 4.34) than helpers who displayed moderate (M =
4.93) or high (M = 4.91) levels of immediacy.
Discussion
The purpose of this study was to determine whether and in what ways the sex of the
helper and the recipient moderate the effects of comforting messages in face-to-face interactions.
In particular, we sought to explore whether men and women are best comforted by the same
types of comforting messages or whether they are most comforted by different types of
emotionally supportive behavior.
The results of this experiment indicate that men and women respond very similarly to
comforting messages (and helpers) who exhibit different levels of verbal person centeredness
and nonverbal immediacy, and that this similarity is not moderated by the sex of the helper.
Both men and women were most comforted by messages that exhibit high levels of person
centeredness and nonverbal immediacy and least comforted by messages that exhibit low levels
of these qualities. Moreover, both men and women viewed highly person-centered and


Convention
All Academic Convention is the premier solution for your association's abstract management solutions needs.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 24 of 51   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.