All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex on the Experience and Outcomes of Comforting Messages: An Experimental Investigation
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 26 person-centered quality of messages in real life settings. This speculation is supported by our finding that message person centeredness explained a moderate amount of variance (18%) in recipients’ perceptions of the comforting quality of the messages. Recipient sex influenced emotional improvement ratings weakly such that men reported slightly more improvement in their affect states than did women. Men may derive more from supportive interactions generally than women, regardless of the verbal or nonverbal conduct of helpers. This might explain why men derive greater benefit from close relationships than do women (Cutrona, 1996). Perceived Helper Competence as a Function of Comforting Messages Help recipients evaluated the competence of the helpers with respect to sensitivity, conversational engagement, and normativeness. Helpers who exhibited a high level of person centeredness were viewed as most sensitive and engaging. However, when we controlled for perceived sensitivity, message person centeredness did not significantly influence perceptions of helpers’ conversational engagement. “Pure” engagement (i.e., engagement after removing the effects of sensitivity), then, was unaffected by message person centeredness. It is interesting, however, that nonverbal immediacy had a substantial effect on perceived engagement, even when we controlled for perceived sensitivity. Perceived engagement was thus influenced much more strongly by the helper’s nonverbal behavior than by his or her verbal behavior, a finding that is consistent with much of the immediacy literature (Andersen, 1985; J. K. Burgoon et al., 1989). Our study generated one small, but interesting, result with respect to how message person centeredness influenced evaluations of the normativeness of the helper. When we controlled for both perceived sensitivity and conversational engagement, recipients were found to view helpers

Authors: Jones, Susanne. and Burleson, Brant.
first   previous   Page 26 of 51   next   last



background image
Effects of Helper and Recipient Sex 26
person-centered quality of messages in real life settings. This speculation is supported by our
finding that message person centeredness explained a moderate amount of variance (18%) in
recipients’ perceptions of the comforting quality of the messages.
Recipient sex influenced emotional improvement ratings weakly such that men reported
slightly more improvement in their affect states than did women. Men may derive more from
supportive interactions generally than women, regardless of the verbal or nonverbal conduct of
helpers. This might explain why men derive greater benefit from close relationships than do
women (Cutrona, 1996).
Perceived Helper Competence as a Function of Comforting Messages
Help recipients evaluated the competence of the helpers with respect to sensitivity,
conversational engagement, and normativeness. Helpers who exhibited a high level of person
centeredness were viewed as most sensitive and engaging. However, when we controlled for
perceived sensitivity, message person centeredness did not significantly influence perceptions of
helpers’ conversational engagement. “Pure” engagement (i.e., engagement after removing the
effects of sensitivity), then, was unaffected by message person centeredness. It is interesting,
however, that nonverbal immediacy had a substantial effect on perceived engagement, even
when we controlled for perceived sensitivity. Perceived engagement was thus influenced much
more strongly by the helper’s nonverbal behavior than by his or her verbal behavior, a finding
that is consistent with much of the immediacy literature (Andersen, 1985; J. K. Burgoon et al.,
1989).
Our study generated one small, but interesting, result with respect to how message person
centeredness influenced evaluations of the normativeness of the helper. When we controlled for
both perceived sensitivity and conversational engagement, recipients were found to view helpers


Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 26 of 51   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.