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Visual Representation and the Prediction of Emotion
Unformatted Document Text:  10 Each button was associated with a number from 1-7. The button labeled with the number one also corresponded with the text, “not at all.” The button labeled with the number seven also corresponded with the text, “extremely.” These verbal indicators guided participants in how to properly indicate the magnitude of their responses using the numerical scale. The on-screen text instructed participants to select the number that represented how much they agreed with the statement. None of the subjects reported confusion with this procedure. Finally, in preparation for the regression analysis, we matched the content analysis data with the subject response data. Using the content analysis data and demographic variables from the surveys as the independent variables and scales measuring the subjects’ emotional response as the dependent variables, we then conducted a series of regression analyses. The study used one scale for negative affect and one for positive affect as the dependent variables. Independent Variables: The Coding Instrument Measures of Negativity With the exception of the demographic variables listed above, all of the independent variables used were measures of the image content produced from the preliminary content analysis. The first set of measures in the coding instrument rates the level of negativity in the photograph. This is an important aspect to quantify because of the copious research indicating that negativity has a strong positive effect on recall. The first measure of negativity quantifies the level of aggression (if any) that is being displayed by people within the image. This measure was based on the scale used by Greenberg (1980) and again by Oliver

Authors: Sherr, Susan.
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10
Each button was associated with a number from 1-7. The button labeled with the
number one also corresponded with the text, “not at all.” The button labeled with
the number seven also corresponded with the text, “extremely.” These verbal
indicators guided participants in how to properly indicate the magnitude of their
responses using the numerical scale. The on-screen text instructed participants to
select the number that represented how much they agreed with the statement.
None of the subjects reported confusion with this procedure.
Finally, in preparation for the regression analysis, we matched the content
analysis data with the subject response data. Using the content analysis data and
demographic variables from the surveys as the independent variables and scales
measuring the subjects’ emotional response as the dependent variables, we then
conducted a series of regression analyses. The study used one scale for negative
affect and one for positive affect as the dependent variables.
Independent Variables: The Coding Instrument
Measures of Negativity
With the exception of the demographic variables listed above, all of the
independent variables used were measures of the image content produced from
the preliminary content analysis. The first set of measures in the coding
instrument rates the level of negativity in the photograph. This is an important
aspect to quantify because of the copious research indicating that negativity has a
strong positive effect on recall. The first measure of negativity quantifies the level
of aggression (if any) that is being displayed by people within the image. This
measure was based on the scale used by Greenberg (1980) and again by Oliver


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