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Visual Representation and the Prediction of Emotion
Unformatted Document Text:  11 (1994) to measure levels of violence in television programs. The categories were altered slightly to be more applicable to still images. Negativity, measure one: Indicate which, if any, of the following appear in the image: • Apparent aggression (“noxious, non-verbal symbolic messages” or the appearance of negative affect). • Threat of physical aggression (“overt warnings of intentions to do physical harm to a person,” e.g. holding a knife to a person). • Unarmed physical aggression (physical violence through contact between body parts) • Armed physical aggression (the act of one person hurting another with a weapon). We included the second measure to account for the fact that photojournalists rarely photograph acts of violence as they are occurring but are more frequently present to document the aftermath of violent events. Negativity, measure two: Does the image portray the outcome of violence (injuries, destroyed physical structures, etc.)? The third variable accounts for the large percentage of news coverage allotted to suffering that is not caused by intentional human action. Negativity, measure three: Does the image portray the outcome of any non- violence related disaster (weather, earth-quakes, economic collapse, etc.)? The final measure of negativity evaluates the facial displays of subjects in the image. Coders determined if anyone in the image was displaying a negative emotion and if anyone was displaying a positive emotion. We anticipated that the presence of positive emotion would be inversely related to negative affect. Negativity, measure four: Is anyone in the image displaying a negative emotion?

Authors: Sherr, Susan.
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11
(1994) to measure levels of violence in television programs. The categories were
altered slightly to be more applicable to still images.
Negativity, measure one: Indicate which, if any, of the following appear in the
image:
Apparent aggression (“noxious, non-verbal symbolic messages” or the appearance
of negative affect).
Threat of physical aggression (“overt warnings of intentions to do physical harm
to a person,” e.g. holding a knife to a person).
Unarmed physical aggression (physical violence through contact between body
parts)
Armed physical aggression (the act of one person hurting another with a weapon).
We included the second measure to account for the fact that
photojournalists rarely photograph acts of violence as they are occurring but are
more frequently present to document the aftermath of violent events.
Negativity, measure two: Does the image portray the outcome of violence
(injuries, destroyed physical structures, etc.)?
The third variable accounts for the large percentage of news coverage
allotted to suffering that is not caused by intentional human action.
Negativity, measure three: Does the image portray the outcome of any non-
violence related disaster (weather, earth-quakes, economic collapse, etc.)?
The final measure of negativity evaluates the facial displays of subjects in
the image. Coders determined if anyone in the image was displaying a negative
emotion and if anyone was displaying a positive emotion. We anticipated that the
presence of positive emotion would be inversely related to negative affect.
Negativity, measure four: Is anyone in the image displaying a negative
emotion?


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