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Visual Representation and the Prediction of Emotion
Unformatted Document Text:  15 Intimacy, measure four: Are the people in the image interacting at • public distance (consistent with the norms of public address, 12-14 feet) • far social distance (e.g. across a desk, 7-12 feet) • close social distance (e.g. conversing at a party, 4-7 feet) • far personal distance (people could touch fingers if they reached out their arms, 2.5-4 feet) • close personal distance (one person could grasp the other by the arm or hand, 1.5- 2.5 feet) • far intimate distance (people touching at extremities, 6-18 inches) • close intimate distance (embracing or making physical contact at head, legs or pelvis) Dependent Variables: The dependent variables measuring subjects’ self-reported level of emotional response consisted of two scales, one for positive affect and one for negative affect, created from the responses to a series of 7-point affect scales measuring thirteen emotional responses. These scales are those used by Aust and Zillman (1996) in their study of the effects of victim exemplification in television news stories. This study eliminated one, “it was entertaining” because it is more relevant for television than still images, and added two, “it was heartwarming” and “it was funny.” We included these two scales because Zillman’s scales are heavily weighted toward negative emotions and because a small group of participants who pre-tested the instrument said they felt a measure of humorousness was necessary. The scales range from 1- not at all to 7- extremely.

Authors: Sherr, Susan.
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15
Intimacy, measure four: Are the people in the image interacting at
public distance (consistent with the norms of public address, 12-14 feet)
far social distance (e.g. across a desk, 7-12 feet)
close social distance (e.g. conversing at a party, 4-7 feet)
far personal distance (people could touch fingers if they reached out their arms,
2.5-4 feet)
close personal distance (one person could grasp the other by the arm or hand, 1.5-
2.5 feet)
far intimate distance (people touching at extremities, 6-18 inches)
close intimate distance (embracing or making physical contact at head, legs or
pelvis)
Dependent Variables:
The dependent variables measuring subjects’ self-reported level of
emotional response consisted of two scales, one for positive affect and one for
negative affect, created from the responses to a series of 7-point affect scales
measuring thirteen emotional responses. These scales are those used by Aust and
Zillman (1996) in their study of the effects of victim exemplification in television
news stories. This study eliminated one, “it was entertaining” because it is more
relevant for television than still images, and added two, “it was heartwarming”
and “it was funny.” We included these two scales because Zillman’s scales are
heavily weighted toward negative emotions and because a small group of
participants who pre-tested the instrument said they felt a measure of
humorousness was necessary. The scales range from 1- not at all to 7- extremely.


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