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Visual Representation and the Prediction of Emotion
Unformatted Document Text:  21 next to each other. When the way items are arranged is not consistent with expectations, there is cognitive confusion. Since this type of cognitive unease causes discomfort, it also increases a viewer’s experience of negativity during the process of viewing an image. On the other hand, when objects appear in a sequence that is familiar, when everything is “in its place,” arousal, and consequently, affective response is not increased. The relevance of proximity was validated further by the fact that people responded more positively to images in which subjects were close together. Meaning about the relationships among subjects of the image was inferred based on how proximate those subjects were to each other. This interpretation carried out by viewers has as its foundation the real-world cues that motivated Hall’s (1966) categorization of human interaction used to code the images for the study. People’s own experiences with the norms of interpersonal relationships help to determine how they respond to mediated depictions of interactions. Of course, the fact that the presence of interactions was not significant in either of the large or any of the small regressions appears to render questionable the use if interaction as an explanatory variable. The presence of interaction may have been insignificant because some of the effects of the presence of interaction were accounted for by the variable representing interpersonal closeness. This variable can only have a value above zero if an interaction is occurring in the photograph, and, therefore, these two variables must be correlated. A similar issue arises with the final negativity regression. Although significant in the initial regression, degree of closeness was not significant in the

Authors: Sherr, Susan.
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next to each other. When the way items are arranged is not consistent with
expectations, there is cognitive confusion. Since this type of cognitive unease
causes discomfort, it also increases a viewer’s experience of negativity during the
process of viewing an image. On the other hand, when objects appear in a
sequence that is familiar, when everything is “in its place,” arousal, and
consequently, affective response is not increased.
The relevance of proximity was validated further by the fact that people
responded more positively to images in which subjects were close together.
Meaning about the relationships among subjects of the image was inferred based
on how proximate those subjects were to each other. This interpretation carried
out by viewers has as its foundation the real-world cues that motivated Hall’s
(1966) categorization of human interaction used to code the images for the study.
People’s own experiences with the norms of interpersonal relationships help to
determine how they respond to mediated depictions of interactions.
Of course, the fact that the presence of interactions was not significant in
either of the large or any of the small regressions appears to render questionable
the use if interaction as an explanatory variable. The presence of interaction may
have been insignificant because some of the effects of the presence of interaction
were accounted for by the variable representing interpersonal closeness. This
variable can only have a value above zero if an interaction is occurring in the
photograph, and, therefore, these two variables must be correlated.
A similar issue arises with the final negativity regression. Although
significant in the initial regression, degree of closeness was not significant in the


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