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Caribbean Negritos: Ramón Rivero, Blackface, and ‘Black’ Voice in Puerto Rico
Unformatted Document Text:  24 28 The main difference between Diplomacia and Calderón was the costume. Diplomacia, dressed in worn out black pants, a white shirt, a checkered vest, black shoes, and a sailor’s hat. Calderón dressed in a white blazer, black pants, and a little white hat. My description of Diplomacia and Calderón is based on the photos provided by Rivero’s family. 29 Cordero-Avila, J. (1973, May 6); José Luis Torregrosa. El Mundo, pp. 2-5.Meyners, J. A. (1945, July 1). Diplo: Una personalidad artística en ascenso. El Mundo, pp. 16; Newsreel (1956). The 1956 newsreel was provided by Rivero’s family. There is no information on the producer and writer of the WIPR-channel 6. 30 Reyes Vargas, P., & Lidin, H. (1956, August 27). 50,000 Asisten a entierro de Diplo. El Imparcial, pp. 4, 37; Reyes Vargas, P. (1956, September 1). Diplo, un gran actor y un gran corazón. El Imparcial, pp. S-1; S-3; S-5; S-6; Rojas Daporta, M., & Ocasio, J. M. (1956, August 27). Millares asisten al Sepelio. El Mundo, pp. 1, 26. 31 Personal communication, Paquito Cordero, July 1997. 32 Saéz, M. (1973, January 13). El negrito Doroteo. TV Guía, 11, 74-75. 33 Similar to Puerto Rico, Cuba’s post-independence nation-building stages created a discourse of cubanidad [Cubanness] which positioned the Spanish culture and ‘whiteness’ at the top of the racial and cultural hierarchy. 34 De León, H. (2000, January 17). Buscan revivir personaje de Diplo. El Nuevo Día, p. 17 name. Book References Cobas, J. A., & Duany, J. (1997). Cubans in Puerto Rico: Ethnic Economy and Cultural Identity. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Dávila, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Duany, J. (2002). The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island and in the United States. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. Guerra, L. (1998). Popular Expression and National Identity in Puerto Rico: The Struggle for Self, Community, and Nation. Florida: University of Florida Press. Frederik, L. A. (2001). The Contestation of Cuba's Public Sphere in National Theatre and the Transformation from Teatro Bufo to Teatro Nuevo. Gestos, 31, 65-98. Grosfoguel, R. (1997). The Divorce of Nationalist Discourses from the Puerto Rican People: A Sociohistorical Perspective. In F. Negron-Muntaner & R. Grosfoguel (Eds.), Puerto Rican Jam: Essays on Culture and Politics (pp. 39-56). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Leal, R. (1980). Breve historia del teatro cubano. La Habana: Editorial Letras Cubanas. Leal, R. (1982a). La selva oscura: de los bufos de la neocolonia. La Habana: Editorial Arte y Literatura. Leal, R. (1982b). Marginalismo y escena nacional. Revista Tablas, 1(enero-mayo), 13-22. Leal, R. (1986). Teatro del siglo XIX (Vol. Tomo I). La Habana: Editorial letras cubanas. Lott, E. (1995). Love & Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Authors: Rivero, Yeidy.
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background image
24
28
The main difference between Diplomacia and Calderón was the costume. Diplomacia, dressed in worn out black
pants, a white shirt, a checkered vest, black shoes, and a sailor’s hat. Calderón dressed in a white blazer, black pants,
and a little white hat. My description of Diplomacia and Calderón is based on the photos provided by Rivero’s
family.
29
Cordero-Avila, J. (1973, May 6); José Luis Torregrosa. El Mundo, pp. 2-5.Meyners, J. A. (1945, July 1). Diplo:
Una personalidad artística en ascenso. El Mundo, pp. 16; Newsreel (1956). The 1956 newsreel was provided by
Rivero’s family. There is no information on the producer and writer of the WIPR-channel 6.
30
Reyes Vargas, P., & Lidin, H. (1956, August 27). 50,000 Asisten a entierro de Diplo. El Imparcial, pp. 4, 37;
Reyes Vargas, P. (1956, September 1). Diplo, un gran actor y un gran corazón. El Imparcial, pp. S-1; S-3; S-5; S-6;
Rojas Daporta, M., & Ocasio, J. M. (1956, August 27). Millares asisten al Sepelio. El Mundo, pp. 1, 26.
31
Personal communication, Paquito Cordero, July 1997.
32
Saéz, M. (1973, January 13). El negrito Doroteo. TV Guía, 11, 74-75.
33
Similar to Puerto Rico, Cuba’s post-independence nation-building stages created a discourse of cubanidad
[Cubanness] which positioned the Spanish culture and ‘whiteness’ at the top of the racial and cultural hierarchy.
34
De León, H. (2000, January 17). Buscan revivir personaje de Diplo. El Nuevo Día, p. 17 name.
Book References

Cobas, J. A., & Duany, J. (1997). Cubans in Puerto Rico: Ethnic Economy and Cultural Identity.
Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Dávila, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Duany, J. (2002). The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island and in the
United States. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press.
Guerra, L. (1998). Popular Expression and National Identity in Puerto Rico: The Struggle for
Self, Community, and Nation. Florida: University of Florida Press.

Frederik, L. A. (2001). The Contestation of Cuba's Public Sphere in National Theatre and the
Transformation from Teatro Bufo to Teatro Nuevo. Gestos, 31, 65-98.
Grosfoguel, R. (1997). The Divorce of Nationalist Discourses from the Puerto Rican People: A
Sociohistorical Perspective. In F. Negron-Muntaner & R. Grosfoguel (Eds.), Puerto
Rican Jam: Essays on Culture and Politics
(pp. 39-56). Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press.

Leal, R. (1980). Breve historia del teatro cubano. La Habana: Editorial Letras Cubanas.

Leal, R. (1982a). La selva oscura: de los bufos de la neocolonia. La Habana: Editorial Arte y
Literatura.

Leal, R. (1982b). Marginalismo y escena nacional. Revista Tablas, 1(enero-mayo), 13-22.

Leal, R. (1986). Teatro del siglo XIX (Vol. Tomo I). La Habana: Editorial letras cubanas.

Lott, E. (1995). Love & Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.


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