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Deficiencies vs. Differences: Predicting Older Women's Knowledge Levels on Breast Cancer
Unformatted Document Text:  22 contingency model (Figure 5). Knowledge gaps between different (high vs. medium and low) education groups were bigger among those with mammography experience than those without. This seemed to support the motivation association model that education influenced knowledge acquisition by way of motivation, rather than the motivation contingency model which assumed the reverse relationship. Future studies need to be done to clarify the interaction effects between education and motivation. An inherent weakness with secondary analysis is the limitations on the operationalization of concepts. For example, functional breast cancer knowledge was not fully explored due to the lack of such measures in the original survey data. The operationalization of perceived risk might be too general, and lack of self-efficacy measures undermined the power of motivational factors. A multi-dimensional measure of motivation should be employed by future studies. The background variable of media publicity should also be refined. The survey did not contain any questions on personal media use, so a content analysis was done to assess the media environment instead. Such content analysis has proved to be a valid measure of the information circulating in the social system. However, it would be better to gauze each women’s media use and information environment directly. And ideally, longitudinal data should be employed to test the knowledge gap hypothesis in which media publicity on the issue would vary, and time series analysis could then be conducted to detect the variables accounting for the change in knowledge gap along the time. This should be addressed by future studies.

Authors: Gao, Kun.
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contingency model (Figure 5). Knowledge gaps between different (high vs. medium and
low) education groups were bigger among those with mammography experience than
those without. This seemed to support the motivation association model that education
influenced knowledge acquisition by way of motivation, rather than the motivation
contingency model which assumed the reverse relationship. Future studies need to be
done to clarify the interaction effects between education and motivation.
An inherent weakness with secondary analysis is the limitations on the operationalization
of concepts. For example, functional breast cancer knowledge was not fully explored due
to the lack of such measures in the original survey data. The operationalization of
perceived risk might be too general, and lack of self-efficacy measures undermined the
power of motivational factors. A multi-dimensional measure of motivation should be
employed by future studies.
The background variable of media publicity should also be refined. The survey did not
contain any questions on personal media use, so a content analysis was done to assess the
media environment instead. Such content analysis has proved to be a valid measure of the
information circulating in the social system. However, it would be better to gauze each
women’s media use and information environment directly. And ideally, longitudinal data
should be employed to test the knowledge gap hypothesis in which media publicity on the
issue would vary, and time series analysis could then be conducted to detect the variables
accounting for the change in knowledge gap along the time. This should be addressed by
future studies.


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