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Representations of Race and Sexuality on Feminist Web Sites
Unformatted Document Text:  Representations of Race and Sexuality on Feminist Web Sites 7 for his own protection and finds it female and dangerous.” 15 But cyberfeminism has its own associated ideology signifying a privileged position, or what Susan Luckman terms as “their own set of protocols for having perpetually to live up to some sort of compulsory technologically avant-garde, ’happenin’ grrrl lifestyle, which can be just as prescriptive as any sort of ideological commitment to politically serious or aware conduct.” 16 This ideology can be just as disenfranchising and disempowering to those without opportunities as any provided by the hegemonic culture. For this reason, the theories mentioned above (categorized as second-wave feminist theories) have been criticized for their lack of diversity and inclusiveness and disregard of the social ramifications of location and experience. The authors were primarily white, Anglo, Euro-centric theorists. These theories were criticized for the absence of considering different races and sexualities. Such criticism has fostered the post-modern environment in which one’s experience impacts her position in society and that position reflects what Patricia Hill Collins termed the “matrix of domination” or the intersection of race, sex, and class on one’s situation. 17 Some of the earliest criticisms of feminism came from non-white women of the feminist movement during the early 1960s. In discussions surrounding the context and meaning of “woman,” rhetoric regarding the difference of experience of black women and other women of color emerged. In “Theorizing Difference From Multiracial Feminism,” Zinn and Dill discussed the history and nature of these criticisms of unitary theories of gender. They developed the conceptual framework of “multiracial feminism” that is “an attempt to go beyond a mere recognition of diversity and difference among women to examine structures of domination, specifically the importance of race in

Authors: Royal, Cindy.
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Representations of Race and Sexuality on Feminist Web Sites
7
for his own protection and finds it female and dangerous.”
15
But cyberfeminism has its
own associated ideology signifying a privileged position, or what Susan Luckman terms
as “their own set of protocols for having perpetually to live up to some sort of
compulsory technologically avant-garde, ’happenin’ grrrl lifestyle, which can be just as
prescriptive as any sort of ideological commitment to politically serious or aware
conduct.”
16
This ideology can be just as disenfranchising and disempowering to those
without opportunities as any provided by the hegemonic culture.
For this reason, the theories mentioned above (categorized as second-wave
feminist theories) have been criticized for their lack of diversity and inclusiveness and
disregard of the social ramifications of location and experience. The authors were
primarily white, Anglo, Euro-centric theorists. These theories were criticized for the
absence of considering different races and sexualities. Such criticism has fostered the
post-modern environment in which one’s experience impacts her position in society and
that position reflects what Patricia Hill Collins termed the “matrix of domination” or the
intersection of race, sex, and class on one’s situation.
17
Some of the earliest criticisms of feminism came from non-white women of the
feminist movement during the early 1960s. In discussions surrounding the context and
meaning of “woman,” rhetoric regarding the difference of experience of black women
and other women of color emerged. In “Theorizing Difference From Multiracial
Feminism,” Zinn and Dill discussed the history and nature of these criticisms of unitary
theories of gender. They developed the conceptual framework of “multiracial feminism”
that is “an attempt to go beyond a mere recognition of diversity and difference among
women to examine structures of domination, specifically the importance of race in


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