All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

An ecological psychology approach to the study of audiences
Unformatted Document Text:  ecological theory...3 Affordances may refer to attributes of objects. Gibson himself used the example of a postbox with a slit that affords the posting of letters (Gibson, 1979), although for a small animal the same object might be seen as a source of shelter, or even a safe place to build a nest. Among human agents, there are differences in aptitude or ability that determine the affordances of the environment. A flight of steps affords climbing to most humans, but not to a small child or a wheelchair user. Of course, if the human environment is largely a social one, then we must also consider communicative bodily gestures, pauses in conversation, and facial expressions, as affordances for social activity (Greeno, 1994). Ecological psychology has generated a number of key ideas of direct relevance to mass communication. Firstly, it poses a direct challenge to a number of dualisms that lie at the heart of traditional approaches to psychology, notably the nature/culture and individual/social dichotomies. It considers human activity as animal activity but avoids the reductionism of most current evolutionary psychology because it does not focus on genetic determinism as the core explanatory mechanism behind human and animal behaviour. It also focuses on the ways that humans transform their environments and thus makes it harder to distinguish the cultural from the natural (the “theme park” might act as an example here). Perhaps most importantly, it argues against the study of the individual as an isolated figure, and stresses the need to consider all human activity as social. This brings it in line with other developments in social psychology such as discursive psychology (Edwards & Potter, 1992) and critical psychology (Gough & McFadden, 2001), which have sought different ways of bridging the individual/social dichotomy, by focusing on language or discourse as the primary sites of human activity.

Authors: Giles, David.
first   previous   Page 3 of 21   next   last



background image
ecological theory...3
Affordances may refer to attributes of objects. Gibson himself used the example of a
postbox with a slit that affords the posting of letters (Gibson, 1979), although for a
small animal the same object might be seen as a source of shelter, or even a safe place
to build a nest. Among human agents, there are differences in aptitude or ability that
determine the affordances of the environment. A flight of steps affords climbing to
most humans, but not to a small child or a wheelchair user. Of course, if the human
environment is largely a social one, then we must also consider communicative bodily
gestures, pauses in conversation, and facial expressions, as affordances for social
activity (Greeno, 1994).
Ecological psychology has generated a number of key ideas of direct relevance to
mass communication. Firstly, it poses a direct challenge to a number of dualisms that
lie at the heart of traditional approaches to psychology, notably the nature/culture and
individual/social dichotomies. It considers human activity as animal activity but
avoids the reductionism of most current evolutionary psychology because it does not
focus on genetic determinism as the core explanatory mechanism behind human and
animal behaviour. It also focuses on the ways that humans transform their
environments and thus makes it harder to distinguish the cultural from the natural (the
“theme park” might act as an example here). Perhaps most importantly, it argues
against the study of the individual as an isolated figure, and stresses the need to
consider all human activity as social. This brings it in line with other developments in
social psychology such as discursive psychology (Edwards & Potter, 1992) and
critical psychology (Gough & McFadden, 2001), which have sought different ways of
bridging the individual/social dichotomy, by focusing on language or discourse as the
primary sites of human activity.


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 3 of 21   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.