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Attributions and Outcomes: Hurtful Communication in Families
Unformatted Document Text:  Attributions and Outcomes 10 influences how they respond to it. Indeed, recipients’ level of relationship satisfaction in particular may impact their responses to hurtful messages, with highly satisfied individuals responding with active verbal responses (Vangelisti & Crumley, 1998). This finding suggests that recipients’ perceptions about the quality of their relationship influenced whether they responded productively or not to hurtful comments. To explore this further, the following hypotheses were proposed: H 4a: Relational satisfaction will be inversely associated with negative communicative responses to hurtful communication, such that recipients’ will report engaging in more Active Distancing, more Negative Affect Expression, more Distributive Communication, more Avoidance/Denial, and more Violent Communication/Threats. H 4b: Relational satisfaction will be directly associated with positive communicative responses to hurtful communication, such that recipients will report engaging in more Integrative Communication. Method Participants Respondents in this study were three hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students (129 males, 229 females) enrolled in communication courses at a large western university. Ages ranged from 17 to 26, with an average age of 19.00 (SD = 1.59). All received extra course credit for their participation. Procedures Participants were told that this project involved learning about hurtful communication in families. Respondents were given a questionnaire that consisted of several measures. There were two versions of questionnaires and each respondent competed only one version. The first

Authors: Young, Stacy., Kubicka, Tara., Tucker, Caralyn., McCoy, Jamie., Kanaan, Kanaan., Johnson, Jarvis., Chavez-Appel, Desi. and Dinger, Michelle.
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Attributions and Outcomes
10
influences how they respond to it. Indeed, recipients’ level of relationship satisfaction in
particular may impact their responses to hurtful messages, with highly satisfied individuals
responding with active verbal responses (Vangelisti & Crumley, 1998). This finding suggests
that recipients’ perceptions about the quality of their relationship influenced whether they
responded productively or not to hurtful comments. To explore this further, the following
hypotheses were proposed:
H 4a: Relational satisfaction will be inversely associated with negative communicative
responses to hurtful communication, such that recipients’ will report engaging in more
Active Distancing, more Negative Affect Expression, more Distributive Communication,
more Avoidance/Denial, and more Violent Communication/Threats.
H 4b: Relational satisfaction will be directly associated with positive communicative
responses to hurtful communication, such that recipients will report engaging in more
Integrative Communication.
Method
Participants
Respondents in this study were three hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students (129
males, 229 females) enrolled in communication courses at a large western university. Ages
ranged from 17 to 26, with an average age of 19.00 (SD = 1.59). All received extra course credit
for their participation.
Procedures
Participants were told that this project involved learning about hurtful communication in
families. Respondents were given a questionnaire that consisted of several measures. There
were two versions of questionnaires and each respondent competed only one version. The first


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