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Environmental Concern, Patterns of Television Viewing, and Pro-Environmental Behaviors
Unformatted Document Text:  TV-Environment 14 on prime-time entertainment television, indicating that the environment is discussed infrequently in this type of programming content and then only in a neutral or unconcerned manner. Replication Given that the two forms of factual-based television use were significant contributors to pro-environmental behaviors across both data sets, we wanted to cross-validate these results to confirm that the effects are consistent across time (Rosenthal, 1991). The effects sizes for public affairs television use (1999: r = .06, z = 2.90; 2000: r = .05, z = 2.40) are consistent across the two years, and the same can be said for nature documentary use (1999: r = .06, z = 2.90; 2000: r = .06, z = 2.90). Thus, we have a full replication of two direct effects of factual-based television use on pro-environmental behaviors. This provides further support for H4 and H5. Television Use as Mediator Given that there is almost no direct influence of the three forms of fiction-based television use on pro- environmental behaviors (research question #3), there are only two routes through which media use can mediate the effects of pre-media use variables on pro-environmental behaviors, through the two forms of fact-based television use, public affairs and nature documentaries. Thus, we only examine the potential mediating role of these two forms of television use, focusing on relationships that are consistent across the two years. We consider the general patterns of mediation and discuss how the indirect effects through these two forms of media use function relative to the direct effects of the pre-media use variables on pro-environmental behaviors. First and foremost, age was found to have a strong positive influence on both television public affairs use and nature documentary use, and both of these forms of television use were strong positive predictors of pro- environmental behaviors. This combination of paths creates two positive indirect effects of age on pro- environmental behaviors through these two forms of television use. These positive indirect effects add to the already strong positive direct effect of age on pro-environmental behaviors, creating a stronger total effect when viewing the model as a whole (analysis not shown). Two other exogenous predictors, race and sex, found to have significant direct effects on pro- environmental behaviors were also found to have significant indirect effects through television use. Race negatively predicted pro-environmental behaviors. However, this demographic variable was a positive predictor of television public affairs use, which in turn positively predicted pro-environmental behaviors. Thus, the indirect effect of race through public affairs is positive, running counter to its negative direct effect on the criterion variable. In other

Authors: Holbert, R. Lance., Kwak, Nojin. and Shah, Dhavan.
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TV-Environment 14
on prime-time entertainment television, indicating that the environment is discussed infrequently in this type of
programming content and then only in a neutral or unconcerned manner.
Replication
Given that the two forms of factual-based television use were significant contributors to pro-environmental
behaviors across both data sets, we wanted to cross-validate these results to confirm that the effects are consistent
across time (Rosenthal, 1991). The effects sizes for public affairs television use (1999: r = .06, z = 2.90; 2000: r =
.05, z = 2.40) are consistent across the two years, and the same can be said for nature documentary use (1999: r =
.06, z = 2.90; 2000: r = .06, z = 2.90). Thus, we have a full replication of two direct effects of factual-based
television use on pro-environmental behaviors. This provides further support for H4 and H5.
Television Use as Mediator
Given that there is almost no direct influence of the three forms of fiction-based television use on pro-
environmental behaviors (research question #3), there are only two routes through which media use can mediate the
effects of pre-media use variables on pro-environmental behaviors, through the two forms of fact-based television
use, public affairs and nature documentaries. Thus, we only examine the potential mediating role of these two forms
of television use, focusing on relationships that are consistent across the two years. We consider the general patterns
of mediation and discuss how the indirect effects through these two forms of media use function relative to the direct
effects of the pre-media use variables on pro-environmental behaviors.
First and foremost, age was found to have a strong positive influence on both television public affairs use
and nature documentary use, and both of these forms of television use were strong positive predictors of pro-
environmental behaviors. This combination of paths creates two positive indirect effects of age on pro-
environmental behaviors through these two forms of television use. These positive indirect effects add to the
already strong positive direct effect of age on pro-environmental behaviors, creating a stronger total effect when
viewing the model as a whole (analysis not shown).
Two other exogenous predictors, race and sex, found to have significant direct effects on pro-
environmental behaviors were also found to have significant indirect effects through television use. Race negatively
predicted pro-environmental behaviors. However, this demographic variable was a positive predictor of television
public affairs use, which in turn positively predicted pro-environmental behaviors. Thus, the indirect effect of race
through public affairs is positive, running counter to its negative direct effect on the criterion variable. In other


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