All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Easy elaboration: The subjective experience of message processing and persuasion
Unformatted Document Text:  Subjective Experience 4 disparity between these two groups (cf. Schwarz et al., 1991). However, the subjective experience of recall ease or difficulty is suggested to qualify a memory’s content (Schwarz, 1998; Schwarz et al., 1991; Tversky & Kahneman, 1973; Winkielman & Schwarz, 2001; Winkielman, Schwarz, & Belli, 1998). By subjective experience, we refer to a person’s reported assessment of cognitive effort. This assessment may result from idea fluency, time to complete a task, task completion, or ability to express thoughts to others. When people have difficulty with the task of recalling assertive behaviors, they may infer it is because they are not assertive. Here is where the predictions of content-based models and subjective experience models differ. Under the subjective experience rationale, recruiting more evidence of assertive behaviors would lead to lower reports of assertiveness than recruiting less evidence. The availability heuristic provides an account of how subjective recall experiences provide inferential information. The crux of the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973) explanation is that examples of frequent or typical events are easier to remember than examples of rare or unique events. Therefore, when people are unable to recall information easily, they conclude that the attributes they are trying to recall do not occur frequently or typically. If recalling positive information is difficult, this suggests little positive information is available from which to draw (Winkielman & Schwarz, 2001; Winkielman et al., 1998). Interestingly, the effect cancels out when people in the process of recalling memories can attribute the experienced difficulty to the task itself rather than to their memories (for reviews see Schwarz, 1998; Schwarz & Clore, 1988). If people believe it is hard to remember statistical equations, then they will attribute recall difficulty to the task, not to their statistical ability. People are not likely, however, to attribute the experience of difficulty to the task, and most often attribute the difficulty to the recalled referent (e.g. Winkielman et al., 1998).

Authors: Smith, Rachel., Goei, Ryan. and Lindsey, Lisa.
first   previous   Page 4 of 23   next   last



background image
Subjective Experience 4
disparity between these two groups (cf. Schwarz et al., 1991). However, the subjective
experience of recall ease or difficulty is suggested to qualify a memory’s content (Schwarz,
1998; Schwarz et al., 1991; Tversky & Kahneman, 1973; Winkielman & Schwarz, 2001;
Winkielman, Schwarz, & Belli, 1998). By subjective experience, we refer to a person’s reported
assessment of cognitive effort. This assessment may result from idea fluency, time to complete a
task, task completion, or ability to express thoughts to others. When people have difficulty with
the task of recalling assertive behaviors, they may infer it is because they are not assertive. Here
is where the predictions of content-based models and subjective experience models differ. Under
the subjective experience rationale, recruiting more evidence of assertive behaviors would lead
to lower reports of assertiveness than recruiting less evidence.
The availability heuristic provides an account of how subjective recall experiences
provide inferential information. The crux of the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman,
1973) explanation is that examples of frequent or typical events are easier to remember than
examples of rare or unique events. Therefore, when people are unable to recall information
easily, they conclude that the attributes they are trying to recall do not occur frequently or
typically. If recalling positive information is difficult, this suggests little positive information is
available from which to draw (Winkielman & Schwarz, 2001; Winkielman et al., 1998).
Interestingly, the effect cancels out when people in the process of recalling memories can
attribute the experienced difficulty to the task itself rather than to their memories (for reviews see
Schwarz, 1998; Schwarz & Clore, 1988). If people believe it is hard to remember statistical
equations, then they will attribute recall difficulty to the task, not to their statistical ability.
People are not likely, however, to attribute the experience of difficulty to the task, and most often
attribute the difficulty to the recalled referent (e.g. Winkielman et al., 1998).


Convention
Submission, Review, and Scheduling! All Academic Convention can help with all of your abstract management needs and many more. Contact us today for a quote!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 4 of 23   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.