All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Representations of Gender and Age in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  Gender & Age in Commercials 12 characters thus allowed us to gain a fairly comprehensive view of the characters who reside in prime time commercials, while avoiding problems with identifying "primary" or "background" characters that other scholars have faced (e.g., Barsch, et al., 2000). Commercial level variables. Three variables were analyzed at the commercial level. Product type referred to the best description of the product. Following Bretl & Cantor (1988), products were grouped into "home products" (household items, foods, furniture, body care, etc.), "away products" (products usually used in places other than the home, such as travel, restaurants, cars, etc.), and "both home and away products" (products that are commonly used at home and away from home, such as clothing, electronics, sporting goods, alcohol, etc.). Commercials were also assessed to determine if a voice-over was used (Bartsch, et al., 2000; Browne, 1998; Fullerton & Kendrick, 2000). Voice-overs were defined as the occurrence of a spoken voice from an unseen source that describes the product and/or encourages product purchase, not including songs or jingles. If a voice-over was used, the gender of the speaker (female or male) was coded. Character level variables. Borrowing in part from past studies, character level variables included evaluations of the characters’ attributes, behaviors, roles, and setting. Attributes of the character reflect a feature or quality of the individual (Mastro & Greenberg, 2000). The first attributes assessed were sex (male or female) and age. For age, characters were coded into four categories, including child (up to 12 years old), teen (13-20 years), young adult (21-35), middle-aged adult (36-65), and senior (over 65). Next, aspects of the characters’ appearance were addressed. Attractiveness, defined as "the apparent physical attractiveness of the character" (Signorelli, McLeod, & Healy 1994) was rated on a 5-point scale, ranging from "very attractive" to "not at all attractive." The degree of dress of characters similarly employed a 5-point scale ranging from "conservatively clad" to "suggestively clad" (Fullerton & Kendrick, 2000; Mastro & Greenber, 2000). Body type was also assessed, using Stunkard, Sorensen, and Schulsinger’s (1983) 9-point pictorial body image scale, depicting figures ranging in body size from extremely thin to obese.

Authors: Mastro, Dana. and Stern, Susannah.
first   previous   Page 12 of 28   next   last



background image
Gender & Age in Commercials 12
characters thus allowed us to gain a fairly comprehensive view of the characters who reside in prime time
commercials, while avoiding problems with identifying "primary" or "background" characters that other
scholars have faced (e.g., Barsch, et al., 2000).
Commercial level variables. Three variables were analyzed at the commercial level. Product
type referred to the best description of the product. Following Bretl & Cantor (1988), products were
grouped into "home products" (household items, foods, furniture, body care, etc.), "away products"
(products usually used in places other than the home, such as travel, restaurants, cars, etc.), and "both
home and away products" (products that are commonly used at home and away from home, such as
clothing, electronics, sporting goods, alcohol, etc.).
Commercials were also assessed to determine if a
voice-over was used (Bartsch, et al., 2000; Browne, 1998; Fullerton & Kendrick, 2000). Voice-overs
were defined as the occurrence of a spoken voice from an unseen source that describes the product and/or
encourages product purchase, not including songs or jingles. If a voice-over was used, the gender of the
speaker (female or male) was coded.
Character level variables. Borrowing in part from past studies, character level variables included
evaluations of the characters’ attributes, behaviors, roles, and setting. Attributes of the character reflect a
feature or quality of the individual (Mastro & Greenberg, 2000). The first attributes assessed were sex
(male or female) and age. For age, characters were coded into four categories, including child (up to 12
years old), teen (13-20 years), young adult (21-35), middle-aged adult (36-65), and senior (over 65).
Next, aspects of the characters’ appearance were addressed. Attractiveness, defined as "the apparent
physical attractiveness of the character" (Signorelli, McLeod, & Healy 1994) was rated on a 5-point scale,
ranging from "very attractive" to "not at all attractive." The degree of dress of characters similarly
employed a 5-point scale ranging from "conservatively clad" to "suggestively clad" (Fullerton &
Kendrick, 2000; Mastro & Greenber, 2000). Body type was also assessed, using Stunkard, Sorensen, and
Schulsinger’s (1983) 9-point pictorial body image scale, depicting figures ranging in body size from
extremely thin to obese.


Convention
All Academic Convention is the premier solution for your association's abstract management solutions needs.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 12 of 28   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.