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Representations of Gender and Age in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  Gender & Age in Commercials 17 attractive) scale, females (M=2.55) were identified as significantly more attractive than males (M=3.06). Among females, young adults (M=2.08) were most attractive. Senior females (M=3.60) were least attractive. Among males, boys (M=2.67) were most attractive and senior males (M=3.77) were least attractive. See Table 1. T-tests comparing women’s and men’s body type also showed that women (M=3.34) had significantly slimmer body types than men (M=4.10), with ‘1’ connoting the slimmest body type and ‘9’ the heaviest (t=14.74, df=2265, p <.001). Individual ANOVAs for male and females showed that among females F(4, 987) = 49.39, p<.001, young adults were thinnest (M=2.89), while senior females were heaviest (M =4.34). Among males, children were thinnest (M=2.69) while middle-aged adults were heaviest (M=4.46), F(4, 1316) = 57.76, p<.001. See Table 1. An age by gender interaction was also found for degree of dress F(4, 2294)=10.45, p<.001. Females (M=2.56) were significantly more suggestively clad than were males (M=2.22), with '1' denoting more conservative dress and '5' suggesting provocative dress. Among females, young adults (M=2.83) were most suggestively clad, and senior females (M=2.09) were most conservatively clad. Among males, boys (M=2.64) were most suggestively clad, and middle-aged adults (M=2.07) were most conservatively clad. See Table 1. However, in terms of engagement in appearance-related behaviors findings were mixed. Both males and females were unlikely to give or receive sexual gazes, or to self-gaze. Age made little difference in these behaviors. Notably, though, females (n=131, 14.0%) were significantly more likely than males (n=17, 1.3%) to engage in alluring behaviors χ 2 (1, N = 2266) = 145.87, p< .001. Among females, one-quarter of young adults (n = 104, 24.5%) exhibited alluring behaviors χ 2 (4, N = 935) = 74.96, p < .001, while among males, virtually no age group engaged in alluring behaviors. Hypothesis 5 Little support was found for the prediction that females would demonstrate less authority and activity than males. Specifically, neither females nor males were likely to be shown either giving or

Authors: Mastro, Dana. and Stern, Susannah.
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Gender & Age in Commercials 17
attractive) scale, females (M=2.55) were identified as significantly more attractive than males (M=3.06).
Among females, young adults (M=2.08) were most attractive. Senior females (M=3.60) were least
attractive. Among males, boys (M=2.67) were most attractive and senior males (M=3.77) were least
attractive. See Table 1.
T-tests comparing women’s and men’s body type also showed that women (M=3.34) had
significantly slimmer body types than men (M=4.10), with ‘1’ connoting the slimmest body type and ‘9’
the heaviest (t=14.74, df=2265, p <.001). Individual ANOVAs for male and females showed that among
females F(4, 987) = 49.39, p<.001, young adults were thinnest (M=2.89), while senior females were
heaviest (M =4.34). Among males, children were thinnest (M=2.69) while middle-aged adults were
heaviest (M=4.46), F(4, 1316) = 57.76, p<.001. See Table 1.
An age by gender interaction was also found for degree of dress F(4, 2294)=10.45, p<.001.
Females (M=2.56) were significantly more suggestively clad than were males (M=2.22), with '1' denoting
more conservative dress and '5' suggesting provocative dress. Among females, young adults (M=2.83)
were most suggestively clad, and senior females (M=2.09) were most conservatively clad. Among males,
boys (M=2.64) were most suggestively clad, and middle-aged adults (M=2.07) were most conservatively
clad. See Table 1.
However, in terms of engagement in appearance-related behaviors findings were mixed. Both
males and females were unlikely to give or receive sexual gazes, or to self-gaze. Age made little
difference in these behaviors. Notably, though, females (n=131, 14.0%) were significantly more likely
than males (n=17, 1.3%) to engage in alluring behaviors
χ
2
(1, N = 2266) = 145.87, p< .001. Among
females, one-quarter of young adults (n = 104, 24.5%) exhibited alluring behaviors
χ
2
(4, N = 935) =
74.96, p < .001, while among males, virtually no age group engaged in alluring behaviors.
Hypothesis 5
Little support was found for the prediction that females would demonstrate less authority and
activity than males. Specifically, neither females nor males were likely to be shown either giving or


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