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Representations of Gender and Age in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  Gender & Age in Commercials 24 References Allan, K. & Coltrane, S. (1996). Gender displaying television commercials: A comparative study of television commercials in the 1950s and 1980s. Sex Roles, 35, 185-204. Atkins, T., Jenkins, M. & Perkins, M. (1991). Portrayals of persons in television commercials age 50 and older. Psychology, 28, 30-37. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in Social Cognitive Theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184. Bandura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 61-90). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication. Media Psychology, 3, 265-299. Bartsch, R., Burnetts, R., Diller, T., & Rankin-Williams, E. (2000). Gender representation in television commercials: Updating an update. Sex Roles, 43, 735-743. Bretl, D. & Cantor, J. (1988). The portrayal of men and women in U.S. television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years. Sex Roles, 18, 595-609. Browne, B. (1998). Gender stereotypes in advertising on children’s television in the 1990s: A cross- national analysis. Journal of Advertising, 27, 83-96. Busch, A., Smith, R., & Martin, C. (1999). The influence of consumer socialization variables on attitude toward advertising: A comparison of African-Americans and Caucasians. Journal of Advertising, 28, 13-24. Chapkis, W. (1986). Beauty secrets: Women and the politics of appearance. Boston, South End Press. Children Now (2001). Fall Colors 2000-2001: Prime time diversity report. The Children in the Media Program, Children Now. Oakland, CA. Coltrane, S. & Adams, M. (1997). Work-family imagery and gender-stereotypes: Television and the reproduction of difference. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 323-347.

Authors: Mastro, Dana. and Stern, Susannah.
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Gender & Age in Commercials 24
References
Allan, K. & Coltrane, S. (1996). Gender displaying television commercials: A comparative study of
television commercials in the 1950s and 1980s. Sex Roles, 35, 185-204.
Atkins, T., Jenkins, M. & Perkins, M. (1991). Portrayals of persons in television commercials age 50 and
older. Psychology, 28, 30-37.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in Social Cognitive Theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184.
Bandura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.),
Media effects: Advances in theory and research (pp. 61-90). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social Cognitive Theory of Mass Communication. Media Psychology, 3, 265-299.
Bartsch, R., Burnetts, R., Diller, T., & Rankin-Williams, E. (2000). Gender representation in television
commercials: Updating an update. Sex Roles, 43, 735-743.
Bretl, D. & Cantor, J. (1988). The portrayal of men and women in U.S. television commercials: A recent
content analysis and trends over 15 years. Sex Roles, 18, 595-609.
Browne, B. (1998). Gender stereotypes in advertising on children’s television in the 1990s: A cross-
national analysis. Journal of Advertising, 27, 83-96.
Busch, A., Smith, R., & Martin, C. (1999). The influence of consumer socialization variables on attitude
toward advertising: A comparison of African-Americans and Caucasians. Journal of Advertising,
28, 13-24.
Chapkis, W. (1986). Beauty secrets: Women and the politics of appearance. Boston, South End Press.
Children Now (2001). Fall Colors 2000-2001: Prime time diversity report. The Children in the Media
Program, Children Now. Oakland, CA.
Coltrane, S. & Adams, M. (1997). Work-family imagery and gender-stereotypes: Television and the
reproduction of difference. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 323-347.


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