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Representations of Gender and Age in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  Gender & Age in Commercials 26 identification, suspense, and outcome resolution. Developmental Psychology, 20, 911-924. Kilbourne, J. (1993). Killing us softly: Gender roles in advertising. Adolescent Medicine, 4, 635-648. Kaufman, G. (1999). The portrayal of men’s family roles in television commercials. Sex Roles, 41, 439- 458. Larson, M. (2001). Interactions, activities, and gender in children’s television Commercials: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45, 41-65. Lin, C. (1997). Beefcake versus cheesecake in the 1990s: Sexist portrayals of both genders in television commercials. The Howard Journal of Communications, 8, 237-249. Lovdal, L. (1989). Sex role messages in television commercials: An update. Sex Roles, 21, 715-724. Makkar, J. & Strube, M. (1995). Black women’s self-perceptions of attractiveness following exposure to white versus Black beauty standards: The moderating role of racial identity and self esteem. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1547-1566. Mazella, C., Durking, K., Cerini, E. & Buralli, P. (1992). Sex role stereotyping in Australian Television advertisements. Sex Roles, 26, 243-260. Moore, T, & Cadeau, L. (1985). The representation of women, the elderly and minorities in Canadian television commercials. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 17, 215-225. Potter, W.J. & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (1999). Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27, 258-284. Riffe, D. Place, P., & Mayo, C. (1993). Game time, soap time and prime time TV ads: Treatment of women in Sunday football and rest-of-week advertising. Journalism Quarterly, 70, 437-446. Roy, A. & Harwood, J. (1997). Underrepresented, positively portrayed: Older adults in Television commercials. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 39-56. Signorielli, N. (1990). Television’s mean and dangerous world: A continuation of the Cultural Indicators perspective. In N. Signorielli & M Morgan (Eds.), Cultivation analysis: New directions in media effects research (pp. 85-106). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Signorelli, N. (1997). Reflections of girls in the media: A content analysis. Oakland, CA: Children Now.

Authors: Mastro, Dana. and Stern, Susannah.
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Gender & Age in Commercials 26
identification, suspense, and outcome resolution. Developmental Psychology, 20, 911-924.
Kilbourne, J. (1993). Killing us softly: Gender roles in advertising. Adolescent Medicine, 4, 635-648.
Kaufman, G. (1999). The portrayal of men’s family roles in television commercials. Sex Roles, 41, 439-
458.
Larson, M. (2001). Interactions, activities, and gender in children’s television Commercials: A content
analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45, 41-65.
Lin, C. (1997). Beefcake versus cheesecake in the 1990s: Sexist portrayals of both genders in television
commercials. The Howard Journal of Communications, 8, 237-249.
Lovdal, L. (1989). Sex role messages in television commercials: An update. Sex Roles, 21, 715-724.
Makkar, J. & Strube, M. (1995). Black women’s self-perceptions of attractiveness following exposure to
white versus Black beauty standards: The moderating role of racial identity and self esteem.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1547-1566.
Mazella, C., Durking, K., Cerini, E. & Buralli, P. (1992). Sex role stereotyping in Australian Television
advertisements. Sex Roles, 26, 243-260.
Moore, T, & Cadeau, L. (1985). The representation of women, the elderly and minorities in Canadian
television commercials. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 17, 215-225.
Potter, W.J. & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (1999). Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis.
Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27, 258-284.
Riffe, D. Place, P., & Mayo, C. (1993). Game time, soap time and prime time TV ads: Treatment of
women in Sunday football and rest-of-week advertising. Journalism Quarterly, 70, 437-446.
Roy, A. & Harwood, J. (1997). Underrepresented, positively portrayed: Older adults in Television
commercials. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 39-56.
Signorielli, N. (1990). Television’s mean and dangerous world: A continuation of the Cultural Indicators
perspective. In N. Signorielli & M Morgan (Eds.), Cultivation analysis: New directions in media
effects research (pp. 85-106). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Signorelli, N. (1997). Reflections of girls in the media: A content analysis. Oakland, CA: Children Now.


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