All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Representations of Gender and Age in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis
Unformatted Document Text:  Gender & Age in Commercials 7 attractive than males (more than half of female characters were rated as extremely beautiful compared to only 2% of males). Among commercials aired during shows most popular with adolescent girls, nearly one-third (32%) of females were portrayed as having "thin" or "very thin" bodies (Signorelli, 1997). Coltrane & Adams (1997) found that women were three times as likely to be depicted as sex objects as men. Similarly, Lin (1997) documented that women were more likely than men to appear in alluring ways more than any other; the opposite was true for men. Clothing (or lack thereof) has also received attention. Signorelli, McLeod, and Healy (1994) found that females in MTV commercials were more likely than males to be portrayed in "skimpy or sexy" clothing, compared to predominantly neutral clothing for males. Likewise Fullerton & Kendrick (2000) found that more than one-tenth of females appearing in commercials on Spanish language television were suggestively clad, even though no males appeared in that degree of undress. Riffe, Place and Mayo (1993) found that in the three different television day parts they examined (Sunday game time, soap time, and prime time), the proportion of females characters who were provocatively dressed outnumbered male characters by three to one. Even among commercials aired during shows most popular with adolescent girls, females were more commonly shown in undergarments ( sleepwear/lingerie) than males (Signorelli, 1997). Behaviors and roles. The way females behave when they are depicted has been the topic of some interest over the past decade. Studies have consistently shown male characters to be a more prominent and dominant part of the commercial television workforce than female characters. For example, men are more commonly portrayed in professional occupations (Coltrane & Adams, 1997; Hong; 1997; Signorelli, 1997), whereas women are more frequently shown doing housework (Kaufman, 1999). Bretl & Cantor (1988) found that females were significantly more likely than males to be depicted without an occupation. Hong (1997) found that among those who did hold occupational roles, twice as many men than women held professional (high-level business) roles. And similarly, Signorelli (1997) noted that males were more than four times as likely to be depicted in a professional/white collar position. White and Kinnick (2000) reported that although women were shown as computer users almost as

Authors: Mastro, Dana. and Stern, Susannah.
first   previous   Page 7 of 28   next   last



background image
Gender & Age in Commercials
7
attractive than males (more than half of female characters were rated as extremely beautiful compared to
only 2% of males). Among commercials aired during shows most popular with adolescent girls, nearly
one-third (32%) of females were portrayed as having "thin" or "very thin" bodies (Signorelli, 1997).
Coltrane & Adams (1997) found that women were three times as likely to be depicted as sex objects as
men. Similarly, Lin (1997) documented that women were more likely than men to appear in alluring
ways more than any other; the opposite was true for men.
Clothing (or lack thereof) has also received attention. Signorelli, McLeod, and Healy (1994)
found that females in MTV commercials were more likely than males to be portrayed in "skimpy or sexy"
clothing, compared to predominantly neutral clothing for males. Likewise Fullerton & Kendrick (2000)
found that more than one-tenth of females appearing in commercials on Spanish language television were
suggestively clad, even though no males appeared in that degree of undress. Riffe, Place and Mayo
(1993) found that in the three different television day parts they examined (Sunday game time, soap time,
and prime time), the proportion of females characters who were provocatively dressed outnumbered male
characters by three to one. Even among commercials aired during shows most popular with adolescent
girls, females were more commonly shown in undergarments
(
sleepwear/lingerie) than males (Signorelli,
1997).
Behaviors and roles.
The way females behave when they are depicted has been the topic of
some interest over the past decade. Studies have consistently shown male characters to be a more
prominent and dominant part of the commercial television workforce than female characters. For
example, men are more commonly portrayed in professional occupations (Coltrane & Adams, 1997;
Hong; 1997; Signorelli, 1997), whereas women are more frequently shown doing housework (Kaufman,
1999). Bretl & Cantor (1988) found that females were significantly more likely than males to be depicted
without an occupation. Hong (1997) found that among those who did hold occupational roles, twice as
many men than women held professional (high-level business) roles. And similarly, Signorelli (1997)
noted that males were more than four times as likely to be depicted in a professional/white collar position.
White and Kinnick (2000) reported that although women were shown as computer users almost as


Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 7 of 28   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.