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Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents: A negative feedback-loop model
Unformatted Document Text:  A negative feedback-loop model page 10 ruminative thought, or behavior. However, the correlations between the latent variables indicated by these items were all above .6. Models that examined paths to these latent variables separately could not, as one might expect given the degree of collinearity, be reliably estimated. Conceptually, this high latent correlation suggested to us that the underlying construct of aggressiveness was more meaningful in this age population than discrete measures of cognitions, values, and behavior. For example, behavior alone may not measure aggressiveness with much precision in a young adolescent population, as actually enacting physical aggression might be constrained by factors such as small stature or socialization against such enactment among females. Conversely, some young people may enact aggressive behaviors because of peer norms and pressures without being in fact aggressive by inclination or preference. We therefore considered a higher- order factor model, in which the three latent factors would in turn represent a higher- order aggression factor. Such models, however, typically require at least three indicators for each of the lower order factors, and only two per factor were available in this data set. For each time lag, then, a single aggression construct was constructed that was composed of the three indices as indicators, without including the individual items comprising the indices directly in the model. Control variables. Four control variables were included in the model. The first, sensation-seeking, was a latent factor measured using three indicators that inquired about engaging in dangerous activities without worrying about the consequences, each measured on a five point scale (1 = not at all, 5 = very often). These items have been found to correlate well with more traditional measures of sensation-seeking (citation

Authors: Slater, Michael., Swaim, Randall. and Anderson, Lori.
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A negative feedback-loop model page 10
ruminative thought, or behavior. However, the correlations between the latent variables
indicated by these items were all above .6. Models that examined paths to these latent
variables separately could not, as one might expect given the degree of collinearity, be
reliably estimated.
Conceptually, this high latent correlation suggested to us that the underlying
construct of aggressiveness was more meaningful in this age population than discrete
measures of cognitions, values, and behavior. For example, behavior alone may not
measure aggressiveness with much precision in a young adolescent population, as
actually enacting physical aggression might be constrained by factors such as small
stature or socialization against such enactment among females. Conversely, some young
people may enact aggressive behaviors because of peer norms and pressures without
being in fact aggressive by inclination or preference. We therefore considered a higher-
order factor model, in which the three latent factors would in turn represent a higher-
order aggression factor. Such models, however, typically require at least three indicators
for each of the lower order factors, and only two per factor were available in this data set.
For each time lag, then, a single aggression construct was constructed that was composed
of the three indices as indicators, without including the individual items comprising the
indices directly in the model.
Control variables. Four control variables were included in the model. The first,
sensation-seeking, was a latent factor measured using three indicators that inquired about
engaging in dangerous activities without worrying about the consequences, each
measured on a five point scale (1 = not at all, 5 = very often). These items have been
found to correlate well with more traditional measures of sensation-seeking (citation


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