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Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents: A negative feedback-loop model
Unformatted Document Text:  A negative feedback-loop model page 3 experiments (just over .2), which can control for selective exposure effects through experimental manipulations. Non-experimental studies, in contrast, have the advantage of testing behavior and responses in naturally occurring contexts. Effects for the 46 longitudinal and 86 cross-sectional studies are closer to .17, but the 95% confidence interval for each of these does not approach zero. While the effect sizes are at best modest, they are non-trivial given the population-wide exposure to media violence. As these authors point out, the effect sizes are larger than the effects of calcium intake on bone mass or lead exposure on childen’s IQ, both significant public health risks. Anderson and Bushman (2002) note in particular a recent longitudinal study of adolescents and young adults that found evidence for television viewing effects on subsequent aggression, after incorporation of extensive statistical controls (Johnson, Cohen, Smailes, Kasen & Brook, 2002). They laud the study as the first study to examine longitudinal effects on adolescents rather than on children. The primary limitation of the Johnson et al. (2002) study, as they note, is the use of hours of overall television viewing as the predictor variable, rather than exposure to media violence per se. On one hand, overall television exposure is a conservative measure, being correlated with violent content on television but only imperfectly, which should diminish effects. However, it does limit estimation of selective exposure to violent media content. Johnson, et al. (2002) did find some evidence that aggression predicted subsequent television viewing in general, though the relationship between this differential amount of exposure and effects of aggression were not conceptually explored nor explicitly modeled.

Authors: Slater, Michael., Swaim, Randall. and Anderson, Lori.
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A negative feedback-loop model page 3
experiments (just over .2), which can control for selective exposure effects through
experimental manipulations. Non-experimental studies, in contrast, have the advantage
of testing behavior and responses in naturally occurring contexts. Effects for the 46
longitudinal and 86 cross-sectional studies are closer to .17, but the 95% confidence
interval for each of these does not approach zero. While the effect sizes are at best
modest, they are non-trivial given the population-wide exposure to media violence. As
these authors point out, the effect sizes are larger than the effects of calcium intake on
bone mass or lead exposure on childen’s IQ, both significant public health risks.
Anderson and Bushman (2002) note in particular a recent longitudinal study of
adolescents and young adults that found evidence for television viewing effects on
subsequent aggression, after incorporation of extensive statistical controls (Johnson,
Cohen, Smailes, Kasen & Brook, 2002). They laud the study as the first study to
examine longitudinal effects on adolescents rather than on children. The primary
limitation of the Johnson et al. (2002) study, as they note, is the use of hours of overall
television viewing as the predictor variable, rather than exposure to media violence per
se. On one hand, overall television exposure is a conservative measure, being correlated
with violent content on television but only imperfectly, which should diminish effects.
However, it does limit estimation of selective exposure to violent media content.
Johnson, et al. (2002) did find some evidence that aggression predicted subsequent
television viewing in general, though the relationship between this differential amount of
exposure and effects of aggression were not conceptually explored nor explicitly
modeled.


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