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Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents: A negative feedback-loop model
Unformatted Document Text:  A negative feedback-loop model page 5 Evidence for Selective Exposure to Violent Media Content Selective exposure theory is concerned with how and why individuals orient their attention to specific communication stimuli (Zillman & Bryant, 1985). From this perspective, people are believed to select mediated content based on their own psychological needs as well as situational influences, consistent with arguments made by uses and gratifications researchers (McGuire 1974; Palmgreen 1984; Palmgreen & Rayburn 1985}. In the 1970s and 80s, several studies did find support for the proposition that aggressiveness was linked with viewing violent programming on television (e.g., Atkin, 1985; Robinson & Bachman, 1972). More recent studies have focused on specific dispositional and psychosocial variables predicting use of violent media content. For example, several studies have established a relationship between sensation-seeking, aggressiveness, and risk-taking orientation with use of mediated violence from a variety of genres, including television (Krcmar & Greene 2000) action films (Aluja-Fabregat, 2000; Slater, in press), and video games and Internet (Anderson & Dill, 2000; Slater, in press). While cross-sectional relationships between aggression and media violence are of uncertain causal direction, the relationships between risk-taking orientations such as sensation-seeking and media violence almost certainly represent selective exposure. There is substantial evidence that sensation-seeking is a dispositional characteristic, probably with at least some genetic basis (Bardo & Mueller, 1991; Zuckerman, 1988). Obviously, exposure to violent media content should not substantially affect an innate disposition, leading to the conclusion that selective exposure effects were operative.

Authors: Slater, Michael., Swaim, Randall. and Anderson, Lori.
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A negative feedback-loop model page 5
Evidence for Selective Exposure to Violent Media Content
Selective exposure theory is concerned with how and why individuals orient their
attention to specific communication stimuli (Zillman & Bryant, 1985). From this
perspective, people are believed to select mediated content based on their own
psychological needs as well as situational influences, consistent with arguments made by
uses and gratifications researchers (McGuire 1974; Palmgreen 1984; Palmgreen &
Rayburn 1985}.
In the 1970s and 80s, several studies did find support for the proposition that
aggressiveness was linked with viewing violent programming on television (e.g., Atkin,
1985; Robinson & Bachman, 1972). More recent studies have focused on specific
dispositional and psychosocial variables predicting use of violent media content. For
example, several studies have established a relationship between sensation-seeking,
aggressiveness, and risk-taking orientation with use of mediated violence from a variety
of genres, including television (Krcmar & Greene 2000) action films (Aluja-Fabregat,
2000; Slater, in press), and video games and Internet (Anderson & Dill, 2000; Slater, in
press). While cross-sectional relationships between aggression and media violence are of
uncertain causal direction, the relationships between risk-taking orientations such as
sensation-seeking and media violence almost certainly represent selective exposure.
There is substantial evidence that sensation-seeking is a dispositional characteristic,
probably with at least some genetic basis (Bardo & Mueller, 1991; Zuckerman, 1988).
Obviously, exposure to violent media content should not substantially affect an innate
disposition, leading to the conclusion that selective exposure effects were operative.


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