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Effects of Brain Laterality on Decoding Accuracy for Facial Displays of Emotion
Unformatted Document Text:  Effects of Brain 34 Footnotes 1 Unless noted otherwise, we will use the terms affect and emotion interchangeably. 2 We acknowledge here that facial affect displays need not be representational (meaning that they are reflective of genuine emotional states), but may instead be presentational (meaning that they convey emotional states that the encoder is not actually experiencing at the time). A good example of the distinction is found in the difference between the Duchenne smile (or, unfelt smile), in which the primary facial musculature movement is that of the zygomatic major, which draws the corners of the mouth away from each other, and the genuine smile (or, felt smile), in which the movement of the zygomatic major is accompanied by that of the orbicularis oculi, which produces the “crow’s feet” effect on the outer sides of the eyes. Research indicates that naïve viewers can accurately discriminate between these two types of expressions (see, e.g., Frank, Ekman, & Friesen, 1993; Scherer & Ceschi, 2000). 3 No other demographic information was collected on the sample. 4 Each of these figures represents the sum of the mean and standard deviation for the respective type of disorder. By this procedure we identified those whose scores deviated from the mean by more than a standard deviation, a procedure recommended by Bodary and Miller (2000). 5 Researchers do not agree on how many basic emotions there are, nor on what they are (Cornelius, 1996). We acknowledge that Ekman (1971) included disgust on his list of basic, universal emotions, and that others have offered different lists of emotions that ought to be considered basic and universal (e.g., Izard, 1977; Tomkins, 1962, 1963). However, all of these

Authors: Floyd, Kory. and Mikkelson, Alan.
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Effects of Brain 34
Footnotes
1
Unless noted otherwise, we will use the terms affect and emotion interchangeably.
2
We acknowledge here that facial affect displays need not be representational (meaning
that they are reflective of genuine emotional states), but may instead be presentational (meaning
that they convey emotional states that the encoder is not actually experiencing at the time). A
good example of the distinction is found in the difference between the Duchenne smile (or, unfelt
smile), in which the primary facial musculature movement is that of the zygomatic major, which
draws the corners of the mouth away from each other, and the genuine smile (or, felt smile), in
which the movement of the zygomatic major is accompanied by that of the orbicularis oculi,
which produces the “crow’s feet” effect on the outer sides of the eyes. Research indicates that
naïve viewers can accurately discriminate between these two types of expressions (see, e.g.,
Frank, Ekman, & Friesen, 1993; Scherer & Ceschi, 2000).
3
No other demographic information was collected on the sample.
4
Each of these figures represents the sum of the mean and standard deviation for the
respective type of disorder. By this procedure we identified those whose scores deviated from
the mean by more than a standard deviation, a procedure recommended by Bodary and Miller
(2000).
5
Researchers do not agree on how many basic emotions there are, nor on what they are
(Cornelius, 1996). We acknowledge that Ekman (1971) included disgust on his list of basic,
universal emotions, and that others have offered different lists of emotions that ought to be
considered basic and universal (e.g., Izard, 1977; Tomkins, 1962, 1963). However, all of these


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