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Decoupling Pacing and Information: An Embodied, Dynamic Account of Visual Perception and Memory
Unformatted Document Text:  Embodied, Dynamic Memory 18 illness, and pollution). Finally, two relatively neutral categories of pictures were included (nature scenes and household objects). 1 Table 1 lists the pictures used. Each category included 8 exemplars. Four of the pictures were shown to each participant in a counter-balanced fashion, and 4 were included as foils at time of recognition testing. Digital versions of the pictures were presented on 15-inch Dell laptop LCD monitors placed approximately 2 feet from participants. Picture display was controlled using Matlab software. To try to minimize ceiling effects, pictures were shown for 700 ms, a rate at which performance started to drop during pre-testing. Previous work shows a similar set of affective and physiological responses to IAPS pictures shown for 500 ms and 6000 ms (Codispoti, Bradley, & Lang, 2001). Immediately after picture presentation, random visual noise was presented to mask the viewing area. Inter-trial interval (ITI) was manipulated at four different levels, as described below. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of four counter-balanced orders. For each participant, 15 pictures were seen at each level of ITI determined by order. Within each level of ITI, the computer randomly ordered the 15 pictures for each level and each participant. The 120 pictures were divided into two sets, such that each participant saw only half of the pictures during presentation. All of the pictures were tested for recognition. Procedure Experiments were run in small groups of 2 to 5 participants each. Participants were tested in laboratory cubicles so that they could not see one another during picture exposure or testing. When they arrived participants were randomly assigned to first complete either this experiment or another similar experiment using affective words and reported elsewhere. After filling out the informed consent document, participants were given instructions about the task. They were told

Authors: Bradley, Samuel.
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Embodied, Dynamic Memory 18
illness, and pollution). Finally, two relatively neutral categories of pictures were included (nature
scenes and household objects).
1
Table 1 lists the pictures used. Each category included 8
exemplars. Four of the pictures were shown to each participant in a counter-balanced fashion,
and 4 were included as foils at time of recognition testing.
Digital versions of the pictures were presented on 15-inch Dell laptop LCD monitors
placed approximately 2 feet from participants. Picture display was controlled using Matlab
software. To try to minimize ceiling effects, pictures were shown for 700 ms, a rate at which
performance started to drop during pre-testing. Previous work shows a similar set of affective
and physiological responses to IAPS pictures shown for 500 ms and 6000 ms (Codispoti,
Bradley, & Lang, 2001). Immediately after picture presentation, random visual noise was
presented to mask the viewing area. Inter-trial interval (ITI) was manipulated at four different
levels, as described below.
Each participant was randomly assigned to one of four counter-balanced orders. For each
participant, 15 pictures were seen at each level of ITI determined by order. Within each level of
ITI, the computer randomly ordered the 15 pictures for each level and each participant. The 120
pictures were divided into two sets, such that each participant saw only half of the pictures
during presentation. All of the pictures were tested for recognition.
Procedure
Experiments were run in small groups of 2 to 5 participants each. Participants were tested
in laboratory cubicles so that they could not see one another during picture exposure or testing.
When they arrived participants were randomly assigned to first complete either this experiment
or another similar experiment using affective words and reported elsewhere. After filling out the
informed consent document, participants were given instructions about the task. They were told


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