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The effects of interactive learning materials on self-regulated learning and learning outcome in the case of Mongolian primary school teachers

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Abstract:

1. Introduction
Interactive learning materials that support self-regulated learning (SRL) are considered to promote learner’s learning and its results (Hwang & Vrongistinos, 2002; Kuo, Walker, Schroder, & Belland, 2014). In Mongolia, multiple policies support the use of ICT for in-service teachers’ professional development, such as Education Master Plan (2006), ICT in Education Policy Action Plan (2012 - 2016), and ICT Vision 2021. Since 2015, Tokyo Institute of Technology has been collaborating with Mongolian National University of Education (MNUE) to produce interactive teacher training materials in three core primary school subjects, namely, Man and Environment, Man and Society, as well as Art and Technology.
2. Research objective
This study aims to identify the influence of interactive materials on effects of self-regulated learning processes to learning outcome.
3. Conceptual framework
This study applies self-regulated learning (SRL) theory. SRL refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals (Pintrich, 2000; Schraw, Crippen, & Hartley, 2006; Zimmerman, 1990). There are four SRL processes during learning: cognition, metacognition, motivation, and resource management (Pintrich, 2000; Schraw et al., 2006). These four SRL processes are affecting learning outcomes (Pintrich, 2000). In this study, affective outcomes, specifically, learning satisfaction and intention to apply knowledge are operationalized in measuring learning outcomes (Pintz & Posey, 2013; Zhao & Namasivayam, 2009). Pintrich asserts that SRL is not a fixed trait of the learner, instead, it may change depending on the different learning contexts (Pintrich, 2000). In this study, the use of interactive materials serve as a contextual factor that may influence the effects of SRL processes to learning satisfaction and intention to apply knowledge.
4. Research design and data source
This study applies two groups experimental design where two groups of teachers were formulated in receiving teacher training. Teachers in treatment group conduct self-development with interactive teacher training materials, teacher training guideline and teacher training videos. Teachers in control group conduct self-development using teacher training guideline and teacher training videos only. Treatment group consists 164 teachers from 15 schools while control group consists 134 teachers from 14 schools. “Motivated Strategies for Learning Outcome Questionnaire (MSLQ)” is identified and localized to measure motivation and learning strategies for SRL processes. Learning satisfaction survey and training effectiveness survey were selected to measure learning outcome (Pintz & Posey, 2013; Zhao & Namasivayam, 2009). It is measuring learner’s satisfaction with learning contents in distance learning context. Responses to these questionnaires are measured with 7-point Likert scale.
5. Analytical methods and findings
The data collection took place in September, 2016. Data analysis include four steps: 1) data input and data cleaning; 2) factor analysis for ensuring data validity, construction of latent variables and verification of the reliability of these variables; 3) moderated multiple linear regression analysis to identify the influence of interactive materials on effects of self-regulated learning processes to learning outcome. Factor analysis identifies five latent variables corresponding SRL processes, namely, internal motivation, motivation for better assessment, critical and positive thinking skills, planning and organizing skills, and effort regulation. There is also one latent variable corresponding to learning outcome, namely, learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents. Based on factor analysis result, research question is formulated: Does the use of interactive materials affect the relationship between learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents with internal motivation, motivation for better assessment, critical and positive thinking skills, planning and organizing skills, as well as effort regulation?
Through moderated multiple linear regression analysis, it is found out that two variables’ effects on learning satisfaction are statistically significantly moderated by the use of interactive materials. First, the use of interactive material moderates the effect of internal motivation on learning satisfaction. With the same level of internal motivation, teachers’ learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents is higher in treatment group than in control group. Second, the use of interactive material moderates the effect of motivation for better assessment on learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents. For teachers in treatment group, higher motivation for better assessment will result in higher learning satisfaction. However, for teachers in control group, higher motivation for better assessment will result in less learning satisfaction. These findings are supplemented by teachers’ input and opinion verifying the study results.
6. Significance of study
This study provides empirical support for self-development activities that are crucial for in-service teachers, in which self-regulated learning processes can be promoted and produce better learning outcome under the influence of interactive learning materials especially in the developing region.
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MLA Citation:

Li, Shengru., Yamaguchi, Shinobu., Takada, Jun-Ichi. and Sukhbaatar, Javzan. "The effects of interactive learning materials on self-regulated learning and learning outcome in the case of Mongolian primary school teachers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, Mar 25, 2018 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1348720_index.html>

APA Citation:

Li, S. , Yamaguchi, S. Y., Takada, J. and Sukhbaatar, J. , 2018-03-25 "The effects of interactive learning materials on self-regulated learning and learning outcome in the case of Mongolian primary school teachers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1348720_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: 1. Introduction
Interactive learning materials that support self-regulated learning (SRL) are considered to promote learner’s learning and its results (Hwang & Vrongistinos, 2002; Kuo, Walker, Schroder, & Belland, 2014). In Mongolia, multiple policies support the use of ICT for in-service teachers’ professional development, such as Education Master Plan (2006), ICT in Education Policy Action Plan (2012 - 2016), and ICT Vision 2021. Since 2015, Tokyo Institute of Technology has been collaborating with Mongolian National University of Education (MNUE) to produce interactive teacher training materials in three core primary school subjects, namely, Man and Environment, Man and Society, as well as Art and Technology.
2. Research objective
This study aims to identify the influence of interactive materials on effects of self-regulated learning processes to learning outcome.
3. Conceptual framework
This study applies self-regulated learning (SRL) theory. SRL refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals (Pintrich, 2000; Schraw, Crippen, & Hartley, 2006; Zimmerman, 1990). There are four SRL processes during learning: cognition, metacognition, motivation, and resource management (Pintrich, 2000; Schraw et al., 2006). These four SRL processes are affecting learning outcomes (Pintrich, 2000). In this study, affective outcomes, specifically, learning satisfaction and intention to apply knowledge are operationalized in measuring learning outcomes (Pintz & Posey, 2013; Zhao & Namasivayam, 2009). Pintrich asserts that SRL is not a fixed trait of the learner, instead, it may change depending on the different learning contexts (Pintrich, 2000). In this study, the use of interactive materials serve as a contextual factor that may influence the effects of SRL processes to learning satisfaction and intention to apply knowledge.
4. Research design and data source
This study applies two groups experimental design where two groups of teachers were formulated in receiving teacher training. Teachers in treatment group conduct self-development with interactive teacher training materials, teacher training guideline and teacher training videos. Teachers in control group conduct self-development using teacher training guideline and teacher training videos only. Treatment group consists 164 teachers from 15 schools while control group consists 134 teachers from 14 schools. “Motivated Strategies for Learning Outcome Questionnaire (MSLQ)” is identified and localized to measure motivation and learning strategies for SRL processes. Learning satisfaction survey and training effectiveness survey were selected to measure learning outcome (Pintz & Posey, 2013; Zhao & Namasivayam, 2009). It is measuring learner’s satisfaction with learning contents in distance learning context. Responses to these questionnaires are measured with 7-point Likert scale.
5. Analytical methods and findings
The data collection took place in September, 2016. Data analysis include four steps: 1) data input and data cleaning; 2) factor analysis for ensuring data validity, construction of latent variables and verification of the reliability of these variables; 3) moderated multiple linear regression analysis to identify the influence of interactive materials on effects of self-regulated learning processes to learning outcome. Factor analysis identifies five latent variables corresponding SRL processes, namely, internal motivation, motivation for better assessment, critical and positive thinking skills, planning and organizing skills, and effort regulation. There is also one latent variable corresponding to learning outcome, namely, learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents. Based on factor analysis result, research question is formulated: Does the use of interactive materials affect the relationship between learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents with internal motivation, motivation for better assessment, critical and positive thinking skills, planning and organizing skills, as well as effort regulation?
Through moderated multiple linear regression analysis, it is found out that two variables’ effects on learning satisfaction are statistically significantly moderated by the use of interactive materials. First, the use of interactive material moderates the effect of internal motivation on learning satisfaction. With the same level of internal motivation, teachers’ learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents is higher in treatment group than in control group. Second, the use of interactive material moderates the effect of motivation for better assessment on learning satisfaction and intention to apply learning contents. For teachers in treatment group, higher motivation for better assessment will result in higher learning satisfaction. However, for teachers in control group, higher motivation for better assessment will result in less learning satisfaction. These findings are supplemented by teachers’ input and opinion verifying the study results.
6. Significance of study
This study provides empirical support for self-development activities that are crucial for in-service teachers, in which self-regulated learning processes can be promoted and produce better learning outcome under the influence of interactive learning materials especially in the developing region.


 
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