Citation

Re-shaping the doctoral curriculum: The imperative for the internationalization of doctoral education

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Abstract:

Objectives
In this scholarly paper, we argue for the need to focus on internationalizing the doctoral curriculum in the United States. Current efforts on internationalizing curriculum emphasize undergraduate education, including study abroad and globally-focused coursework. In addition, several U.S. national associations call for increasing global learning for undergraduate students (e.g., Association of American Colleges and Universities, American Council on Education, Association of Public and Land Grant Universities); however, the role of doctoral education is missing from the overall national discourse with the exception of some summit proceedings by the Council of Graduate Schools (2007, 2010, 2012) that call for the internationalization of graduate education. Yet little guidance is provided on how to internationalization doctoral education.
Despite the heavy international influence on academic scholarship, many doctoral programs provide limited training and support for global competency development and international scholarship (Author, 2016). There is a call for higher education institutions to prepare graduates to work in “cross cultural, globally diverse settings” (Gopal, 2011, p. 374), which would enable them to successfully participate in the economic and knowledge economy that are integral to a global society and international markets. Global competency development is critical because doctoral students are future faculty, senior administrators, and policy makers in education (NASULGC, 2004). Contemporary academia is increasingly international; thus, doctoral students should develop global competencies that reflect the changing nature of education.
Internationalization encompasses many broad aspects, including international student mobility, global quality standards, and short term study abroad; however, for this specific paper, we address the need for “internationalisation at home” (Haigh, 2014, p. 13), which encompasses the development of intercultural skills for local learners. In this scholarly paper, we utilize Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) academic planning model as a way to frame a systematic approach to internationalizing doctoral curriculum. As a result, we seek to contribute to the gap in literature related to developing global competencies in doctoral students.

Theoretical Framework
Latucca and Stark’s (2009) academic plan framework situates curriculum within two crucial environments – external influences and internal, or institutional, influences. We suggest that both environments are critical in understanding how doctoral education is internationalized, as well as providing clarity on what the obstacles may be. Disciplinary differences, individual institutional structures, and academic program level policies may all impact how a curriculum initiative is implemented and carried out, as well as what may hinder that initiative. A NASULGC task force emphasized that “Unfortunately, a well-developed international mindset is rare among new Ph.D. graduate and many faculty because the interdisciplinary, intercultural, and diverse experiential aspects do not fit the focused disciplinary nature of typical Ph.D. programs” (Allen, 2004, p. 24). Thus, we address the need for a well-developed international mindset by highlighting the external and internal influences that push for a curricular emphasis on global learning in doctoral students.
The sociocultural context, which include external and internal influences, drives the actual implementation of the academic planning model. Elements included in Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) academic plan model are: purposes, content, sequence, learners, instructional processes, instructional resources, evaluation, and adjustment. We will discuss how the sociocultural context affects these eight elements in our final paper, and we will provide recommendations for practice at the institutional and programmatic levels.

Scholarly Significance
This paper contributes to scholarship in several important ways. First, it addresses a critical gap in the research and discussion related to internationalization of postsecondary curriculum by highlighting the importance of a focus on doctoral education. Second, doctoral education lacks a common curriculum across disciplines, such as general education at the undergraduate level. The use of Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) academic plan provides a framework for discussion of curriculum internationalization at the doctoral level. The academic plan model provides not only a path for building curriculum, it also highlights the institutional and external factors that may support or inhibit curricular change and that are important to understand in attempting to internationalize doctoral education. Finally, this paper makes a significant contribution to scholarship in arguing for the need to not only have institution-wide discussions about curriculum internationalization at the undergraduate level but also as a part of doctoral education.
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Association:
Name: Comparative and International Education Society Conference
URL:
http://www.cies.us


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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1353295_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Yao, Christina. and Sinclair, Julie. "Re-shaping the doctoral curriculum: The imperative for the internationalization of doctoral education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, Mar 25, 2018 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1353295_index.html>

APA Citation:

Yao, C. W. and Sinclair, J. , 2018-03-25 "Re-shaping the doctoral curriculum: The imperative for the internationalization of doctoral education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1353295_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objectives
In this scholarly paper, we argue for the need to focus on internationalizing the doctoral curriculum in the United States. Current efforts on internationalizing curriculum emphasize undergraduate education, including study abroad and globally-focused coursework. In addition, several U.S. national associations call for increasing global learning for undergraduate students (e.g., Association of American Colleges and Universities, American Council on Education, Association of Public and Land Grant Universities); however, the role of doctoral education is missing from the overall national discourse with the exception of some summit proceedings by the Council of Graduate Schools (2007, 2010, 2012) that call for the internationalization of graduate education. Yet little guidance is provided on how to internationalization doctoral education.
Despite the heavy international influence on academic scholarship, many doctoral programs provide limited training and support for global competency development and international scholarship (Author, 2016). There is a call for higher education institutions to prepare graduates to work in “cross cultural, globally diverse settings” (Gopal, 2011, p. 374), which would enable them to successfully participate in the economic and knowledge economy that are integral to a global society and international markets. Global competency development is critical because doctoral students are future faculty, senior administrators, and policy makers in education (NASULGC, 2004). Contemporary academia is increasingly international; thus, doctoral students should develop global competencies that reflect the changing nature of education.
Internationalization encompasses many broad aspects, including international student mobility, global quality standards, and short term study abroad; however, for this specific paper, we address the need for “internationalisation at home” (Haigh, 2014, p. 13), which encompasses the development of intercultural skills for local learners. In this scholarly paper, we utilize Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) academic planning model as a way to frame a systematic approach to internationalizing doctoral curriculum. As a result, we seek to contribute to the gap in literature related to developing global competencies in doctoral students.

Theoretical Framework
Latucca and Stark’s (2009) academic plan framework situates curriculum within two crucial environments – external influences and internal, or institutional, influences. We suggest that both environments are critical in understanding how doctoral education is internationalized, as well as providing clarity on what the obstacles may be. Disciplinary differences, individual institutional structures, and academic program level policies may all impact how a curriculum initiative is implemented and carried out, as well as what may hinder that initiative. A NASULGC task force emphasized that “Unfortunately, a well-developed international mindset is rare among new Ph.D. graduate and many faculty because the interdisciplinary, intercultural, and diverse experiential aspects do not fit the focused disciplinary nature of typical Ph.D. programs” (Allen, 2004, p. 24). Thus, we address the need for a well-developed international mindset by highlighting the external and internal influences that push for a curricular emphasis on global learning in doctoral students.
The sociocultural context, which include external and internal influences, drives the actual implementation of the academic planning model. Elements included in Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) academic plan model are: purposes, content, sequence, learners, instructional processes, instructional resources, evaluation, and adjustment. We will discuss how the sociocultural context affects these eight elements in our final paper, and we will provide recommendations for practice at the institutional and programmatic levels.

Scholarly Significance
This paper contributes to scholarship in several important ways. First, it addresses a critical gap in the research and discussion related to internationalization of postsecondary curriculum by highlighting the importance of a focus on doctoral education. Second, doctoral education lacks a common curriculum across disciplines, such as general education at the undergraduate level. The use of Lattuca and Stark’s (2009) academic plan provides a framework for discussion of curriculum internationalization at the doctoral level. The academic plan model provides not only a path for building curriculum, it also highlights the institutional and external factors that may support or inhibit curricular change and that are important to understand in attempting to internationalize doctoral education. Finally, this paper makes a significant contribution to scholarship in arguing for the need to not only have institution-wide discussions about curriculum internationalization at the undergraduate level but also as a part of doctoral education.


 
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