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To Smile or Not to Smile :): Defining the Effects of Emoticons on Relational Outcomes
Unformatted Document Text:  1 Running head: EMOTICONS To Smile or Not to Smile : Defining the Effects of Emoticons on Relational Outcomes Abstract Emoticons are utilized to communicate facial expressions or body gestures when expressing opinions/attitudes or moods/emotions online. Although there is a growing use of emoticons, very little research has been conducted on emoticons’ effects on relational outcomes in CMC. This study examines the effects of “smiley emoticons” on various relational outcomes, including, liking, metaperceived liking, immediacy/affection, similarity/depth, and uncertainty reduction. This study also tests the effects of emotions on the perceived credibility of the sender and the message. The results indicate that, in many cases, emoticons have a significant effect on developing favorable relational outcomes. It also examines the impact of emoticons on two different types of settings (task-oriented vs. socio-emotional contexts) to see whether there is an interaction effect. Specific results can be found in the discussion.

Authors: Yoo, Jina.
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Running head: EMOTICONS
To Smile or Not to Smile : Defining the Effects of Emoticons on Relational Outcomes
Abstract
Emoticons are utilized to communicate facial expressions or body gestures when expressing
opinions/attitudes or moods/emotions online. Although there is a growing use of emoticons,
very little research has been conducted on emoticons’ effects on relational outcomes in CMC.
This study examines the effects of “smiley emoticons” on various relational outcomes, including,
liking, metaperceived liking, immediacy/affection, similarity/depth, and uncertainty reduction.
This study also tests the effects of emotions on the perceived credibility of the sender and the
message. The results indicate that, in many cases, emoticons have a significant effect on
developing favorable relational outcomes. It also examines the impact of emoticons on two
different types of settings (task-oriented vs. socio-emotional contexts) to see whether there is an
interaction effect. Specific results can be found in the discussion.


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