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A Comparison of Male and Female Directors in Pornography: What Happens When Women Are at the Helm?
Unformatted Document Text:  Pornography Directors 3 A Comparison of Male and Female Directors in Popular Pornography: What Happens When Women Are at the Helm? "If you are somebody's sister, wife or mother-in-law and picked us up by mistake, please pass us along to the man in your life and get back to the Ladies' Home Companion," Hugh Hefner announced in his first issue of Playboy published in late 1953. Hefner was neither the first nor the last person to declare that pornography is a man's exclusive "secret club," but in the past two decades there have been signs of erosion of that club's walls. During the so called "porn wars" in the 80s, pornography was placed squarely and centrally as a feminist issue. Anti- and pro-pornography feminists engaged in heated ideological battles. The ‘anti’ group argued that pornography is a form of violence against women (Dworkin, 1989; MacKinnon, 1984; Morgan, 1980) while the ‘pro’ group stressed both the dangers of censorship and pornography's benefit for women, or that of liberating them sexually (Berger, Searles, & Cottle, 1990; Dugan & Hunter, 1995; Strossen, 2000). Regardless of which side described the relationship between women and pornography more accurately, the market force has won: the pornography industry has grown from annual revenues of 75 million dollars in 1985, a period when the “porn wars” occurred, to twelve billion dollars in 2005, a 160-fold increase (AVN, 2006). Even though women’s roles in pornography have been historically relegated to that sexual object, it is only in recent years that some women have become audiences, directors and producers (Dominus, 2004) in a world where the products are still largely made by men, for men i (Dines, Jensen, & Russo, 1998). So far, the research on pornography has been primarily concerned with pornography's effects on men's attitudes and behaviors (e.g., Donnerstein, Linz, & Penrod, 1987; Linz, Donnerstein, & Penrod, 1987; Mulac, Jansma, & Linz, 2002), with a comparatively small number of studies

Authors: Sun, Chyng. and Liberman, Rachael.
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Pornography Directors 3
A Comparison of Male and Female Directors in Popular Pornography:
What Happens When Women Are at the Helm?
"If you are somebody's sister, wife or mother-in-law and picked us up by mistake,
please pass us along to the man in your life and get back to the Ladies' Home
Companion," Hugh Hefner announced in his first issue of Playboy published in late 1953.
Hefner was neither the first nor the last person to declare that pornography is a man's
exclusive "secret club," but in the past two decades there have been signs of erosion of
that club's walls. During the so called "porn wars" in the 80s, pornography was placed
squarely and centrally as a feminist issue. Anti- and pro-pornography feminists engaged
in heated ideological battles. The ‘anti’ group argued that pornography is a form of
violence against women (Dworkin, 1989; MacKinnon, 1984; Morgan, 1980) while the
‘pro’ group stressed both the dangers of censorship and pornography's benefit for women,
or that of liberating them sexually (Berger, Searles, & Cottle, 1990; Dugan & Hunter,
1995; Strossen, 2000). Regardless of which side described the relationship between
women and pornography more accurately, the market force has won: the pornography
industry has grown from annual revenues of 75 million dollars in 1985, a period when the
“porn wars” occurred, to twelve billion dollars in 2005, a 160-fold increase (AVN, 2006).
Even though women’s roles in pornography have been historically relegated to
that sexual object, it is only in recent years that some women have become audiences,
directors and producers (Dominus, 2004) in a world where the products are still largely
made by men, for men
(Dines, Jensen, & Russo, 1998). So far, the research on
pornography has been primarily concerned with pornography's effects on men's attitudes
and behaviors (e.g., Donnerstein, Linz, & Penrod, 1987; Linz, Donnerstein, & Penrod,
1987; Mulac, Jansma, & Linz, 2002), with a comparatively small number of studies


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