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Mujra, Bar Girls and Hawala: A Case Study in Mumbai

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Abstract:

The paper is based on the primary and secondary data collected from the members of social organizations in Mumbai (India) that provide assistance to bar girls and dancers, who are primarily seen as sex workers or prostitutes. The government perceives the lifestyle of bar girls as immoral and criminal and wants to shut down mujra joints. There are concerns that a large part of it involves flesh trade and human trafficking within India, as well as mujra business outside India. There are cases that show interlinks between dance bars and organized crime groups that are involved in flesh and drug trades. All these different aspects of business are linked together with the Hawala system that is abused to move money. On the other hand most of the bar dancers see it as their only viable means of making ends meet. Their main contention against closing these dance bars is to provide them with an alternative sustainable means of survival. The paper is based on case studies and interviews and covers a wide range of issues including how some of the girls end up in dance bars, their abuse and coping mechanisms for survival, and social and legal concerns about these activities. The paper briefly touches upon the issue of Hawala, an informal means of money transfer that human traffickers and drug dealers use to move money generated through these activities.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

bar (7), girl (4), mean (3), india (3), money (3), paper (3), danc (3), hawala (3), mujra (3), case (3), studi (2), dancer (2), organ (2), human (2), flesh (2), end (2), abus (2), mumbai (2), concern (2), traffick (2), surviv (2),
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Name: AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY
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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p201215_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Sharma, Divya. "Mujra, Bar Girls and Hawala: A Case Study in Mumbai" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 13, 2007 <Not Available>. 2013-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p201215_index.html>

APA Citation:

Sharma, D. , 2007-11-13 "Mujra, Bar Girls and Hawala: A Case Study in Mumbai" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia Online <PDF>. 2013-12-15 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p201215_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper is based on the primary and secondary data collected from the members of social organizations in Mumbai (India) that provide assistance to bar girls and dancers, who are primarily seen as sex workers or prostitutes. The government perceives the lifestyle of bar girls as immoral and criminal and wants to shut down mujra joints. There are concerns that a large part of it involves flesh trade and human trafficking within India, as well as mujra business outside India. There are cases that show interlinks between dance bars and organized crime groups that are involved in flesh and drug trades. All these different aspects of business are linked together with the Hawala system that is abused to move money. On the other hand most of the bar dancers see it as their only viable means of making ends meet. Their main contention against closing these dance bars is to provide them with an alternative sustainable means of survival. The paper is based on case studies and interviews and covers a wide range of issues including how some of the girls end up in dance bars, their abuse and coping mechanisms for survival, and social and legal concerns about these activities. The paper briefly touches upon the issue of Hawala, an informal means of money transfer that human traffickers and drug dealers use to move money generated through these activities.

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