Citation

The Cognitive Calculus Theory of Decision-Making:Explaining British Foreign Policy Choices in 1938

Abstract | Word Stems | Keywords | Association | Citation | Get this Document | Similar Titles




STOP!

You can now view the document associated with this citation by clicking on the "View Document as HTML" link below.

View Document as HTML:
Click here to view the document

Abstract:

This paper develops the cognitive calculus theory of decision-making. The theory is derived deductively from experimental evidence in social and cognitive psychology, and is based on the notion that all people are cognitive misers or cognitive processing cost-minimizers who unconsciously prefer judgments that are mentally cheap to those that are mentally dear. It proposes that the relative miserliness of any foreign policy choice depends on three distinct variables: the decision-making stage (problem definition or solution definition), a decision-maker's role assignment (leader or advisor), and his or her level of knowledge (novice to expert). And it argues that when circumstances are fluid enough for people to disagree, it is the cognitive cost of making policy judgments (low to high) that accounts for systematic differences between civilian and military specialists in choices of war and peace. Evidence from the British decisions for peace in 1938 confirm the explanatory power of the new theory and extend earlier work on several American cases including studies of the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, the 1968 turn toward peace, and the 2001 decision for war.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

fn (240), militari (160), polici (138), decis (128), 31 (105), see (102), 34 (98), cognit (95), chamberlain (92), foreign (84), decision-mak (76), make (76), non (75), non-militari (71), expert (69), polit (69), judg (67), would (64), knowledg (62), theori (57), war (55),

Author's Keywords:

appeasement, leadership, advisor, military, civilian, war, peace, cognition, international, choice, foreign policy, decision, leader, expert, novice, munich, heuristics
Convention
Convention is an application service for managing large or small academic conferences, annual meetings, and other types of events!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

Association:
Name: American Political Science Association
URL:
http://www.apsanet.org


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210485_index.html
Direct Link:
HTML Code:

MLA Citation:

Gronich, Lori. "The Cognitive Calculus Theory of Decision-Making:Explaining British Foreign Policy Choices in 1938" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2013-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210485_index.html>

APA Citation:

Gronich, L. H. , 2007-08-30 "The Cognitive Calculus Theory of Decision-Making:Explaining British Foreign Policy Choices in 1938" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL Online <PDF>. 2013-12-15 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210485_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper develops the cognitive calculus theory of decision-making. The theory is derived deductively from experimental evidence in social and cognitive psychology, and is based on the notion that all people are cognitive misers or cognitive processing cost-minimizers who unconsciously prefer judgments that are mentally cheap to those that are mentally dear. It proposes that the relative miserliness of any foreign policy choice depends on three distinct variables: the decision-making stage (problem definition or solution definition), a decision-maker's role assignment (leader or advisor), and his or her level of knowledge (novice to expert). And it argues that when circumstances are fluid enough for people to disagree, it is the cognitive cost of making policy judgments (low to high) that accounts for systematic differences between civilian and military specialists in choices of war and peace. Evidence from the British decisions for peace in 1938 confirm the explanatory power of the new theory and extend earlier work on several American cases including studies of the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, the 1968 turn toward peace, and the 2001 decision for war.

Get this Document:

Find this citation or document at one or all of these locations below. The links below may have the citation or the entire document for free or you may purchase access to the document. Clicking on these links will change the site you're on and empty your shopping cart.

Associated Document Available American Political Science Association
Associated Document Available Political Research Online
Abstract Only All Academic Inc.

Document Type: PDF
Page count: 56
Word count: 19289
Text sample:
8/27/07 THE COGNITIVE CALCULUS THEORY OF DECISION-MAKING: EXPLAINING BRITISH FOREIGN POLICY CHOICES IN 1938 Lori Helene Gronich Center for Peace and Security Studies Security Studies Program Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service Georgetown University lhg3@georgetown.edu Abstract This paper develops the cognitive calculus theory of decision-making. The theory is derived deductively from experimental evidence in social and cognitive psychology and is based on the notion that all people are cognitive misers or cognitive processing cost-minimizers who unconsciously prefer judgments
Advocate Most Miserly Least Miserly (Actor; problem-solving) Judge Least Miserly Most miserly (Observer; categorization-by-similarity) Note: An intermediate level of knowledge is always “moderately miserly” for both judges and advocates. 56 a Each task bundle reflects common experimental manipulations used in social and/or cognitive psychology (actor and observer attribution cues; categorization-by-distinctiveness categorization-by-similarity and problem-solving instructions sets). For further development of this perspective see Gronich (fn. 18)


Similar Titles:
Positive Political Theory and Decision-making in Environmental Policy: A Model of ‘Distributed Cognition’

Why Britain Remained at Peace: The Cognitive Calculus Theory and Foreign Policy Decision-Making from the Anschluss to Munich

Theoretical Integration in Foreign Policy Analysis. The Governmental Politics Model and the Poliheuristic Theory of Decision Making


 
All Academic, Inc. is your premier source for research and conference management. Visit our website, www.allacademic.com, to see how we can help you today.