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Mobile assisted language learning, attention, and listening tasks: an empirical study
Unformatted Document Text:  Mobile-assisted language learning, attention, and listening tasks: an empirical study María José de la Fuente George Washington University Theoretical framework l Cognitive approach to SLA: information-processing l The essential role of input in SLA l Input-based activities need to be designed so they direct learners’ attentional resources to specific L2 forms in the input AND raise awareness of such forms (= form-focusing) l The role of attention and awareness l Schmidt’s model (1993, 2001) l Attention is a necessary condition for SLA (Schmidt, 2001, p. 6) l Schmidt’s noticing hypothesis: attention controls access to awareness and it is responsible for conscious noticing, which is the necessary condition for he conversion of input to intake (Schmidt, 1993, p. 209) Technology and SLA l Most SLA studies investigating the effectiveness of technology lack internal validity because the construct of attention was not operationalized. l To demonstrate a relation between awareness and learning, you need to measure awareness. l How do you measure awareness? l Off-line questionnaires l Concurrent verbal reports (think-alouds) l Retrospective verbal reports (stimulated recall) Focus on form activities (written input) ˜ ¿Oye, los llevaste ya al apartamento? [Hey, did you take them (masc) already to the apartment?] ™ No, todavía no. [No, not yet] ˜ Ah, pues llévaselos porque los están esperando [Then take them (masc) because they are waiting for them (masc)] 1. ¿Qué tiene que llevar al apartamento? a. unos medicamentosb. un documentoc. unas medicinas Technology and L2 input in the classroom l CALL technology (teacher-manipulated input) l MALL technology (learners’ ability to manipulate input) L2 learning mediated via handheld devices that are available anytime, anywhere. l QUESTIONS l can it enhance L2 learning? l Research on the role of MALL technology NEEDS to be theoretically (SLA) grounded The study l GOAL: to examine whether exposure to L2 data (aural input) under different task conditions has a differential impact on

Authors: De La Fuente, Maria.
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Mobile-assisted language learning, attention, and listening tasks: an empirical 
María José de la Fuente
George Washington University
Theoretical framework
Cognitive approach to SLA: information-processing 
The essential role of input in SLA
Input-based activities need to be designed so they direct learners’ attentional resources to specific L2 forms in the 
input AND raise awareness of such forms (= form-focusing)
The role of attention and awareness
Schmidt’s model (1993, 2001)
Attention is a necessary condition for SLA (Schmidt, 2001, p. 6)
Schmidt’s noticing hypothesis: attention controls access to awareness and it is responsible for conscious 
noticing, which is the necessary condition for he conversion of input to intake (Schmidt, 1993, p. 209)
Technology and SLA
Most SLA studies investigating the effectiveness of technology lack internal validity because the construct of 
attention was not operationalized. 
To demonstrate a relation between awareness and learning, you need to measure awareness.
How do you measure awareness?
Off-line questionnaires
Concurrent verbal reports (think-alouds)
Retrospective verbal reports (stimulated recall)
Focus on form activities (written input)
 ¿Oye, los llevaste ya al apartamento?
      [Hey, did you take them (masc) already to the apartment?]
™   No, todavía no.
      [No, not yet]
 Ah, pues llévaselos porque los están esperando
     [Then take them (masc) because they are waiting for them (masc)]
¿Qué tiene que llevar al apartamento?
a. unos medicamentos
b. un documento
c. unas medicinas
Technology and L2 input in the classroom
CALL technology (teacher-manipulated input)
MALL technology (learners’ ability to manipulate input)
     L2 learning mediated via handheld devices that are available anytime, anywhere.
can it enhance L2 learning?
Research on the role of MALL technology NEEDS to be theoretically (SLA) grounded
The study
GOAL: to examine whether exposure to L2 data (aural input) under different task conditions has a differential impact on 

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