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Economic Efficiency Leads to Environmental Inequality in North Carolina’s Hog Industry
Unformatted Document Text:  negative effect in model one for 1982 and 1990, and no significant effect in any of the other models. Percent Registered to Vote is shows a consistent and significant negative effect across both models one and three in the two time periods before the intensive growth, but only demonstrates a significant effect in model one of the two time periods following the growth period. These three variables obviously fail to function as a coherent group and largely must be analyzed independently. However, it is worth noting that the only significant results obtained from any of the three measures were negative, indicating that an increase in political capacity is related to a decrease in hog populations. These findings, while inconclusive on there own, are consistent with the environmental justice concept that unwanted land uses follow the path of least political resistance. Economic Considerations. In this analysis, economic considerations are being tested to see how well they influence the effects of environmental inequality variables and how much they independently contribute to explaining variation in hog populations. In this context it is expected that they will inversely predict hog populations, with swine industry externalities being visited upon areas of low property values and close proximity to slaughtering houses. Distance to Clinton Plant (replaced by Distance to Bladen Plant after 1990 due to that plant opening in 1992) has a consistent significant relationship with hog populations that is strong and negative. Only in model 3 of 1982 does it dip in its predictive power. Distance to Smithfield Plant shows a strong negative effect in model 2 that decreases over the time periods, losing significance in 1999 and 2006. It never demonstrates significant predictive power in model 3. Median Property Values shows a negative effect in model 2 that increases in strength over the time periods, but never demonstrates significant predictive power in any of the model 3s. Control Variables. Population Density, when included in model 3, is a consistent negative predictor of hog populations that is relatively weak in 1982 and robust in the other three time periods. In the bivariate analysis Eastern Counties showed a uniform positive association with increased hog populations, as would be expected given that the majority of the hog population in the state is found in this region. However, in the multivariate analysis, the inclusion of the East * Poverty Rate interaction variable in models one and three means that Eastern Counties represents the effects of a county being in the east when its poverty rate is zero. As this is a relatively meaningless measure, its results are largely ignored. Eastern Counties shows little effect in model two for 1982 and 1990. In 1999 and 2006 it has a mild, yet significant, positive effect which demonstrates that controlling for economic considerations, eastern counties still tend to have larger hog populations then non-eastern counties. Discussion Environmental Inequality and Discrimination Driscoll 19

Authors: Driscoll, Adam. and Edwards, Bob.
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negative effect in model one for 1982 and 1990, and no significant effect in any of the other 
models.  Percent Registered to Vote is shows a consistent and significant negative effect across 
both models one and three in the two time periods before the intensive growth, but only 
demonstrates a significant effect in model one of the two time periods following the growth 
period.  These three variables obviously fail to function as a coherent group and largely must be 
analyzed independently.  However, it is worth noting that the only significant results obtained 
from any of the three measures were negative, indicating that an increase in political capacity is 
related to a decrease in hog populations.  These findings, while inconclusive on there own, are 
consistent with the environmental justice concept that unwanted land uses follow the path of 
least political resistance.
Economic Considerations.  In this analysis, economic considerations are being tested to 
see how well they influence the effects of environmental inequality variables and how much they 
independently contribute to explaining variation in hog populations.  In this context it is expected 
that they will inversely predict hog populations, with swine industry externalities being visited 
upon areas of low property values and close proximity to slaughtering houses.  Distance to 
Clinton Plant
 (replaced by Distance to Bladen Plant after 1990 due to that plant opening in 
1992) has a consistent significant relationship with hog populations that is strong and negative. 
Only in model 3 of 1982 does it dip in its predictive power.  Distance to Smithfield Plant shows a 
strong negative effect in model 2 that decreases over the time periods, losing significance in 
1999 and 2006.  It never demonstrates significant predictive power in model 3.  Median 
Property Values 
shows a negative effect in model 2 that increases in strength over the time 
periods, but never demonstrates significant predictive power in any of the model 3s.
Control Variables.  Population Density, when included in model 3, is a consistent 
negative predictor of hog populations that is relatively weak in 1982 and robust in the other three 
time periods.  In the bivariate analysis Eastern Counties showed a uniform positive association 
with increased hog populations, as would be expected given that the majority of the hog 
population in the state is found in this region.  However, in the multivariate analysis, the 
inclusion of the East * Poverty Rate interaction variable in models one and three means that 
Eastern Counties represents the effects of a county being in the east when its poverty rate is zero. 
As this is a relatively meaningless measure, its results are largely ignored.  Eastern Counties 
shows little effect in model two for 1982 and 1990.  In 1999 and 2006 it has a mild, yet 
significant, positive effect which demonstrates that controlling for economic considerations, 
eastern counties still tend to have larger hog populations then non-eastern counties.
Environmental Inequality and Discrimination

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