*Step 3: Let the Students Work it Out. *On the day of the simulation, the students should

congregate according to actor into mini-summit groups so that each actor invited to the summit is

represented in each group. The students can then be assigned to role-play as a different actor

than the one they did their research on. This is a particularly interesting twist to throw into the

simulation. The students are already prepared with the arguments and positions of the actor they

researched; by forcing them to represent a different actor, the students’ predispositions and ways

of thinking are challenged. At this stage the instructor should hand out the one-page synthesized

position papers and let the students have a few minutes to become familiar with the new actor

they are representing.

It is important that the professor not interfere too much at this stage of the simulation.

The students should be given plenty of time to address each of the issues on the table and to

work on solutions. Sometimes students may come up with solutions that never occurred to the

instructor—this is the beauty of the classroom simulation. It is often surprising the concepts that

students will bring to bear on the issues at hand. For instance, one summit group may decide that

the al Qaeda representative they invited to the table is being uncooperative and thus exclude him.

Groups may come up with solutions that change the payoff structures of the actors, or they may

provide side benefits for defectors from the insurgency. It is important that the students have

some freedom in working out their own solutions. Discussions of feasibility can be left for the

next step.

*Step 4: Discussion. *Approach 2 is a much more involved simulation process than

approach 1, and discussion may have to be left for another class session. Instructors may find it

valuable to hand out some discussion questions similar to those suggested in approach 1 at the

end of the simulation and ask students to think about their answers and be prepared to discuss

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